The Dung File consists of a list of references dealing with pollen, parasites, and plant remains in coprolites and latrine fills from archaeological and palaeoenvironmental sites. The focus is on studies in North America.

The Dung File is subdivided into eleven sections: four depend on the origin of the deposits being investigated (Part 1: Mostly Human, Part 2: Mainly Mammal, Part 3: Animal Middens, Part 4: Other Critters), there are two broader categories, Part 5: General and Review Articles, Part 6: Field and Laboratory Methods, one focussed on theses, Part 7: Theses, and two focussed on modern comparative studies, Part 8: Comparative Studies - Human and Part 9: Comparative Studies - Mammal. Finally, there are a number of articles from news magazines and the popular press (Part 10: Popular Press and Commentary) and some less readily available items listed in Part 11: Conference Abstracts and Grey Literature.

The call numbers are for the library system at the University of Alberta. The remarks in black are my comments.

Part 5: General and Review Articles


Araújo, A., and L. F. Ferreira 2000
Paleoparasitology and the Antiquity of Human Host-Parasite Relationships. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 95 (Suppl. 1):89- 93.
Short but useful review article, with a useful reference list. Points out potential of molecular (aDNA) work when applied to ancient parasites for tracing history of disease and epidemiology. (19/04/2008).

Araújo, A., A. M. Jansen, F. Bouchet, K. Reinhard, and L. F. Ferreira 2003
Parasitism, the Diversity of Life, and Paleoparasitology. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):5- 11.
Traces evolutionary development of parasitism. Notes the occurrence of parasite remains in archaeological contexts and the way in which DNA evidence is making diagnosis of infectious diseases clearer in archaeological record. Coprolites mentioned as one source of palaeoparasitological information, but are not the main focus of this paper. (11/11/2007).

Bliss, W. L. 1950
Birdshead Cave, a Stratified Site in Wind River Basin, Wyoming. American Antiquity 15(3):187-196.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 A preliminary site report. Cave is about 30 feet deep. Located on south side of Owl Creek Mountains. Has a good view of Wind River Basin. Ten strata identified; six identified as cultural layers. Occupation II (from base) yielded animal dung, towards rear of cave, and six hearths. Occupation III yielded two hearths and some possible decomposed animal dung. Dung pellets found in Occupation IV layer, which also yielded lithic artifacts, pottery, and faunal remains including, for the first time, large mammal remains, including bison. Occupation V is associated with a "compact dung layer" which covered most of the cave floor. No analysis of dung or included hair yet done. Artifacts included projectile points and pottery, many lithic artifacts and one small iron fragment, possibly intrusive. Dung pellets and pack rat middens were associated with Occupation VI, which also yielded seven projectile points and many lithic artifacts and pottery. No radiocarbon dates on any materials and no analysis of dung or macroremains performed at time of reporting. Note that radiocarbon dating was not yet available at the time of this report. (25/04/2009).

Bouchet, F., N. Guidon, K. Dittmar, S. Harter, L. F. Ferreira, S. M. Chaves, K. Reinhard, and A. Araújo 2003
Parasite Remains in Archaeological Sites. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):47- 52.
Short review article. Traces development of study of parasites in North and South American archaeology. In North America, archaeoparasitology has been used to explore parasites from perspective of human history and culture. In South America, used to study the history of parasitic diseases. Different approaches. Now more of a multidisciplinary approach is being used in the study of parasites and coprolites. Reviews lifecycles of some parasites that would lead to rare preservation in archaelogical contexts. Reviews three circumstances of recovery of parasites: coprolites, latrine soils, and mummified bodies. Briefly outlines techniques for recovery of samples from archaeological contexts. Outlines difficulties in identification of parasite eggs. (11/11/2007).

Bouchet, F., S. Harter, and M. Le Bailly 2003
The State of the Art of Paleoparasitological Research in the Old World. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):95- 101.
A useful short review article. Discusses, among others: Dicrocoelium, Fasciola, Schistosoma, Taenia, Diphyllobothrium, Ascaris, Trichuris, and Capillaria. Provides a useful reference list to European work, much of which is on medieval sites, and from urban locales. (25/03/2008).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1974
The E. O. Callen Collection. American Antiquity 39(3):497-498.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 A brief note announcing the arrival of E. O. Callen's collection of human coprolites and associated reference material and notes at the Laboratory of Anthropology, Texas A&M University. Bryant notes that the collection is available for use by researchers. (12/06/2006).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1974
The Role of Coprolite Analysis in Archaeology. Bulletin of Texas Archaeological Society 45:1-28.
AEU HSS F 381 T35 Useful review article. Includes some SEM images, mostly of pollen grains. Concentrates on review of North American experience. Earliest studies of coprolites concentrated on macroremains (such as food, insects, feathers). pollen analysis added in 1960s. Often difficult to identify coprolites at all, or to identify them as human in origin. Misidentifications are quite common. Reviews laboratory methods and procedures used in coprolite analysis (pp. 8 - 10). Pollen content may be related to dietary food items or to background pollen from region in which people lived. Subdivision into economic pollen types and background pollen types. Economic pollen types may also give indication of seasonality. Food preparation may be inferred from state of some seeds, e.g., grinding or milling. Plant leaf fragments are difficult to identify since depend on cellular structure. Phytoliths can be recovered from coprolites but usually cannot be identified to a particular plant species. Feathers often occur in coprolites in fragmentary form and can sometime be identified according to barbules along feather barbs. Often these are from birds such as waterfowl (e.g., at Lovelock Cave) indicating that these may have formed part of diet. Very difficult to identify what proportion of diet is from meat. Small animal bones may be present and still identifiable, but animal hair can survive digestive process and is often identifiable to species. Fish scales also may be present and shell (egg and mollusc shell fragments). Insects often formed a component of diet and chitin can be recovered from coprolites. [NB: Processing method described here uses benzene - this is a toxic and hazardous chemical and is now usually restricted.] Both endo- and ectoparasites may also be present in coprolites. Small flakes or rock chips can result from stone tool edge retouching with teeth. (01/08/2005).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1975
The Callen Coprolitic Reference Collection. Economic Botany 29:236-237.
AEU SCI QK 1 E19 Announcement of the Callen Collection of coprolites, residues, notes and file card catalogue at the Laboratory of Anthropology, Texas A&M University. (11/04/2008).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1987
Pollen Grains: The Tiniest Clues in Archaeology. Environment Southwest Number 519(Autumn):10-13.
A general review article that mentions coprolite studies. Reviews applications of palynology within archaeology. Cites case studies from investigations of pueblos, where pollen evidence helped identify function of rooms and plant foods used on site. Reviews evidence that can be obtained from coprolite studies, including information on diet and season in which coprolite was deposited. Case study from Bonfire Shelter, where pollen evidence showing vegetation change provides an explanation for hiatus in site use between around 10,000 yr BP and 2,500 yr BP. Describes Iversen's classic work, helping to establish the time of arrival of agriculturalists (around 4,000 yr BP) in Denmark.

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1989
Botanical Remains in Archaeological Sites. In Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Physical-Chemical- Biological Processes Affecting Archaeological Sites, edited by C. C. Mathewson, pp. 85-115. Environmental Impact Research Program, Contract Report EL-89-1. Final Report. Environmental Laboratory, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, USA.
Review article. Indicates that coprolites are best evidence for diet. Reviews history of palaeoethnobotany in US, and then plant micro remains (pollen, phytoliths). Notes that pace of work has increased as study of plant remains becomes more commonly required in archaeological CRM and mitigation work. Coprolite work reviewed pp. 91-92. Review uses cases studies as illustrations, especially work at Hinds Cave. Notes that here there is a very large and extensive palaeobotanical record yet only a fraction of matrix or coprolites examined. Too much botanical material to analyze effectively! Not the usual situation in archaeology. (18/05/2002).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1994
Callen's Legacy. In Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, edited by K. D. Sobolik, pp. 151-160. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
A thoughtful article that establishes Eric O. Callen, faculty member at McGill University, Canada, as a founder of coprolite studies in North America, assesses his intellectual contribution, and reviews how studies have developed in subsequent years. Expansion of work by Callen in 1960s. Work began by chance in early 1950s, on samples from Huaca Prieta de Chicama (Peru) collected by Junius Bird. Work published by Callen and Cameron (1955). Bryant recounts how he visited with Callen in 1970 just three months before his death. Callen received little public recognition for his work in his lifetime and was somewhat bitter about the mockery he endured from colleagues. Bryant was asked to take over his work at Ayacucho, Peru, after Callen's unexpected sudden death there. Remainder of paper reviews advances in coprolite studies, noting use of phytoliths, biochemistry, pollen, macroremains, and parasites. Lack of professional recognition is still a problem. Also no standardized methods for quantifying and reporting data. Still much to learn about foodways, e.g., what foods were eaten together at particular meals, or how foods were prepared. Also need way of identifying who produced the coprolite, that is, the age, sex, nutritional and health status of the originator. [Side note: Robertson Davies' fine novel, The Rebel Angels, contains a Callen-like figure, Ozias Froats, a professor at a Canadian university (which bears some resemblance to UofT) studying dung for what it can tell about people. Froats is mocked and scorned by other faculty and most students. Froats' work is also held up to scorn by politicians, anxious to score points with the electorate by using his research as an example of the squandering of public funds. However, Froats is vindicated by being awarded a major international science prize, which silences, for the nonce, his critics. Davies was the Master of Massey College at UofT for years. I wonder if he heard of Callen and if this figure is based on him? In any event, it's a great novel!] (10/07/2005).

Bryant, V. M., and G. W. Dean 2006
Archaeological Coprolite Science: The Legacy of Eric O. Callen. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237:51- 66.
AEU SCI QE 500 P15 DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.11.032 An interesting article surveying the history of coprolite studies and the different approaches and types of data that can be investigated now. Traces the foundation of the discipline to work by Callen, a professor of plant pathology at McGill University, Canada. The research was initially prompted by the archaeological work of Junius Bird (another famous name in archaeology) at sites in Peru in 1950s. At the time, no techniques were known for such analyses, so Callen had to develop methods of analysis, at first concentrating on the macrofossil contents of coprolites. Bryant and Dean list many approaches that have been used in coprolite studies, including examination of macrofossil remains, phytoliths, pollen, parasites, and, more recently, DNA. Also highlight continuing debates in data presentation and interpretation. (25/03/2008).

Bryant Jr, V. M., and J. P. Dering 1995
A Guide to Palaeoethnobotany. Manitoba Archaeological Journal 5(2):23-45.
A plain-language introductory review article. Includes coprolites among the types of archaeological materials examined (pp. 29-30); sampling and processing them is discussed (pp. 34-35). A historical survey of the development of the discipline. Discusses site formation processes and impact on recovery. Much or article concentrates on pollen, but also covers seeds and plant macroremains. (05/05/2002).

Bryant Jr, V. M., and G. Williams-Dean 1975
The Coprolites of Man. Science 232:100-109.
AEU SCI Q 1 S41 A plain-language review article that explains why coprolite studies are important (diet, health, and economy), outlines processing techniques, and discusses main types of evidence recovered (pollen, parasites, seeds, bone, hair, fibre, etc.) and the inferences that can be made from that evidence. Briefly describes some case studies, mostly from caves and rock shelters in US (although often the sites are not named). Remains a useful introductory article with some good photographs and illustrations.

Buckland, P. C., and P. E. Wagner 2001
Is There an Insect Signal for the "Little Ice Age"? Climate Change 48:137-149.
AEU SCI QC 981.8 C5 C56 Contains a small section focused on dung beetles with a useful associated reference list. Discussion relates mainly to UK, with some coverage of Atlantic Islands (Greenland, Iceland), medieval European sites, and short (less than one page) survey of North American work. Notes that it is difficult to detect a climate signal from an anthropogenic one, given clearance of woodland and use of pesticides and biocides. Points out that dung beetles are highly mobile and hence should be responsive to climate change. However, difficult to say when a taxon disappeared from British assemblages, given poor records and limited collecting, and whether disappearances are really due to climate change or to habitat destruction and feeding biocides to domestic livestock. Notes that medieval townsites may have contained habitats (e.g., from rotting refuse or dung) that may have had distinctive faunas that no longer exist in the region. (31/03/2002).

Carrión, J. S., and C. Navarro 2002
Cryptogam Spores and Other Non-pollen Microfossils as Sources of Palaeoecological Information: Case-Studies from Spain. Annales Botanici Fennici 39:1-14.
Examined microfossil records from four sites in southeastern Spain. Paper includes light micrographs (images) of palynomorphs, including the dung-related taxon Sordariaceae, and several types of fungal spores (Tilletia, Thecaphora, and Gelasinospora [which is in Sordariaceae family]) that are often, though not exclusively, dung-related. Most of the paper consists of a discussion of ecological (especially hydrological) changes indicated by the records. Proportion of dung indicators in Navarrés record is most obvious in zone dated between around 6000 - 3000 yr BP. May be related to agricultural activity in watershed. This is the only one of these records that exhibits this pattern. Sordariaceae not on diagrams at other sites. (01/08/2005).

Carrión, J. S., and B. van Geel 1999
Fine-resolution Upper Weichselian and Holocene Palynological Record from Navarrés (Valencia, Spain) and a Discussion About Factors of Mediterranean Forest Succession. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 106:209-236.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Core extends to about 30,000 yr BP and is from eastern Spain. Found dung indicators (e.g., Sordariaceae spores and Trichuris eggs) in pollen zone N3PD, dated to about 6000 - 3000 yr BP. Also other anthropogenic or disturbance indicators occur in this zone. The main purpose of the analysis was to obtain a sharper picture of forest history, especially for Pinus and Quercus, in particular the abrupt transition from pine to oak-dominated forests in mid-Holocene. Oak species of concern is cork oak (Quercus suber) and its presence probably reflects the fire history of the region. Was this vegetation change induced by anthropogenic burning? Can't be proven from these data but there is intriguing related archaeological evidence for human presence by about 4700 yr BP at least. (08/07/2007).

Carrott, J., and H. Kenward 2001
Species Associations Among Insect Remains from Urban Archaeological Deposits and Their Significance in Reconstructing the Past Human Environment. Journal of Archaeological Science 28:887-905.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1006/jasc.2000.0622 Looked at more than 750 sediment samples from Coppergate, York, and examined insect assemblages. The samples came from various contexts (e.g., house floors, pit and ditch fills) and span 850-1066 AD. Used variety of statistical techniques to explore grouping in the insect data. Many groups identified but six core groups predominated. No group is discrete, many share taxa. One group (B) consists of taxa typically associated with stable manure. Another Group E) of taxa associated with cesspits. Found groups showed strong correlations with deposit types. Some assemblages may be related to specific conditions in York, e.g., the house fauna (Group A) relate to particular building structures and use. May find different house fauna group at different types of sites (e.g., grain pests not prominent at York, but may be more prominent at other sites). Concludes that this statistical approach may be useful for analysing similar large data sets. (25/11/2007).

Cockburn, T. A. 1971
Diseases in Ancient Populations. Current Anthropology 12(1):45-62.
AEU HSS GN 1 C97 Review paper. Last part of paper (pp. 54-62) consists of comments by various professionals and Cockburn's response. Deals with parasitic and other diseases. Posits long antiquity for them and co-evolution with hominids. Notes that many show similarities with diseases carried by other primates. Difficult for parasitic diseases to become established in small highly mobile populations. Notes that sedentism is associated with agriculture provided that conditions for transmission of internal parasites (e.g., hookworms). Use of faecal material as fertilizer probably helped some diseases and parasites to spread and persist. Notes especially Ascaris (Roundworm) and Entamoeba histolytica (causes amoebic dysentry). Use of faecal material in aquaculture, especially in China, led to infection with various types of flukes, including intestinal fluke (Fasciolopsis buski) and liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis). Irrigation encourages spread of Schistosoma, which is also transitted through faecal material. Sumamrizes findings from archaeological work as well, including coprolite studies (pp. 53-54), of which few had been published at that time. (25/05/2009).

Davis, O. K. 1990
Caves as Sources of Biotic Remains in Arid Western North America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 76:331- 348. Paleoenvironments of Arid Regions, Vol. 76, edited by O. K. Davis, pp. 331-348.
AEU SCI QE 500 P15 A good review article, noting dry caves as especially good locations for dung preservation, both human and animal. Notes that some caves may have slow sediment accumulation rates. Review concentrates on pollen analysis of cave sediments. Presents two case studies (Bechan Cave and Twin Butte Cave) as examples. Also discusses packrat middens which are often found in dry caves. Provides a case study of comparison of pollen and plant macroremains from middens in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. (02/07/2006).

Davis, O. K. 2006
Editorial: Feces in the Geological Record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237:1- 3.
AEU SCI QE 500 P15 DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.11.024 Provides an introduction to the papers in the volume, which comprise the proceedings of a session called the "Feces Facies Symposium" held at University College, London, UK. in 2002. Individual papers in this volume are included elsewhere in The Dung File. (22/12/2007).

Dennell, R. W. 1976
The Economic Importance of Plant Resources Represented on Archaeological Sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 3:229-247.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 Begins as a general review article, concentrating on studies from Europe and Near and Middle East and identifying deficiencies in work done hitherto. Focus is mostly on archaeobotanical signatures of crop processing and the residues resulting therefrom, using two case studies: the Neolithic sites of Chevdar and Kazanluk in Bulgaria. Mentions dung or coprolite studies only incidentally in one paragraph. (09/10/2006).

Dillehay, T. D. 1991
Disease Ecology and Initial Human Migration. In The First Americans: Search and Research, edited by T. D. Dillehay and D. J. Meltzer, pp. 231-264. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
A useful review article. First reviews outcomes of disease on hunter-gatherer (HG) populations. Reviews concepts of health and disease, and provides a listing of types of diseases to which HG populations may be prone. Coprolite studies discussed (p. 236). Reviews human biological response to disease. Considers whether genetic response and acquired immunity have worked fast enough in a population migrating through the Americas. Discusses disease vectors and their geographic distribution, especially as these relate to parasite and animal (host) populations. Evidence suggests that cold and/or arid environments are probably healthier (fewer diseases and parasites). Tropical areas are more high-risk, greater ecosystem complexity. Reviews evidence from contemporary HG groups. In general, most HG groups exhibit good health (balanced diet, plenty of exercise, and small group size). However, sick or injured individuals are less likely to recover or survive (partly because of group mobility). Coprolite studies are discussed more intensively under archaeological evidence for Late Pleistocene diseases (pp. 247-248). Notes that there is little skeletal or soft tissue evidence from the LP or EH New World and most is from arid environments which makes extrapolation hazardous. Some evidence of medicinal plant use (notes especially plant remains from Monte Verde). Notes that arctic might have acted as a "filter," limiting the spread of Old World diseases to the New; also notes that tropics of Central America may have acted as a biological barrier or bottleneck to migration due to the number of diseases prevalent in that region. Notes also that diseases affecting mammals may have had an indirect impact on human populations (e.g., reduction in available prey, change in ecosystem or vegetation); animal populations may be regulated through parasites or disease. (31/03/2002).

Duffin, C. J. 2009
"Records of warfare embalmed in the everlasting hills"; a History of Early Coprolite Research. Mercian Geologist 17(2):101-111.
Identifies William Buckland as the founder of coprolite studies and originator of the term. Notes that specimens found at Cherry Hinton near Cambridge and now known to be coprolites were originally described as larch cones by John Woodward in 1729. Other similar specimens found near Lewes were described by Gideon Mantell in 1822, though he was somewhat undecided as to their origin. François-Xavier de Burtin described similar specimens from the Brussels area in 1784. Kirkdale Cave in Yorkshire was visited by Buckland in 1821. He described it as a hyaena den and found small white balls of material he called Album Graecum in the bone deposit. He suggested these might be hyaena faeces. He also found similar specimens in the Lunel Cave, in southern France, in 1826. He went on to find coprolites in the Lias deposits of Lyme Regis, where he concluded they were produced by Ichthyosaurs and noted that they contained fossil remains, presumably from prey items. Buckland used the term coprolite in an 1835 paper, which then caused other collectors to re-examine their collections and find additional specimens, which were either previously not identified or misidentified as something else. Describes how Buckland undertook some experimental work on rays and dogfishes to see if he could produce masses with a similar spiral shape as the fossil specimens. Injected intestines of dissected specimens with a type of hydraulic cement. Coprolite research was taken up by other and many papers on coprolites published in 1830s and 1840s, including some by Louis Agassiz. (23/Dec/2009).

Gonçalves, M. L. C., A. Araújo, and L. F. Ferreira 2003
Human Intestinal Parasites in the Past: New Findings and a Review. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):103- 118.
Examined 894 samples, coprolites, latrine and cesspit samples; most (720) from Brazil. Tabulate data from these samples and also from other published studues ion the same taxa. Therefore provides a useful and extensive reference resource list. Notes that parasites mobe with their hosts and so can provide informtion on human population movements in the past. Notes that Taenia spp. haven't been found in pe-Columbian New World, since pork and beef were not available until then. Summarizes life cycles and hosts of many parasite taxa found in archaeological contexts. Very useful review paper. (01/06/2008).

Green, F. J. 1979
Phosphatic Mineralization of Seeds from Archaeological Sites. Journal of Archaeological Science 6:279-284.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 Looked at composition of mineralized seeds and a coprolite from sites in Winchester, southern England, on chalk soils. Found that mineral was a form of calcium phosphate. Considers several sources for mineralizating agents, concluding that soil type, groundwater, and type of organic refuse may play important roles. Considers sequence of infilling or replacement of organic mineral material in seeds. Notes that such mineralized objects may be subject to dissolution if geochemical conditions change after their formation. Notes that it is common to find mineralized seeds in deposits like cess pits where faecal material is common. These preserve material in aerobic conditions which otherwise would not be preserved. Often better and more seeds preserved by mineralization than carbonization. Gives one example (from sample from site at Castle Acre Castle, in Norfolk, England): 400 seeds representing 20 species by mineralization, whereas only 46 seeds from 6 species by carbonization. Notes that such material may not be recovered by flotation methods normally used for botanical remains in archaeological investigations. (20/11/2008).

Green, F. J. 1982
Problems of Interpreting Differentially Preserved Plant Remains from Excavations of Medieval Urban Sites. In Environmental Archaeology in the Urban Context, edited by A. R. Hall and H. K. Kenward, pp. 40-46. Research Report No. 43. Council for British Archaeology, UK.
AEU HSS DA 90 E62 A general review dealing with the many depositional contexts of which cess pits are just one. Focuses mainly on work in medieval Winchester and Southhampton and other sites in Hampshire, southern England. Notes that macroremains from cess pits can often be heavily mineralized (with calcium phosphate). Notes that weed seeds may be brought to sites in animal dung. Notes importance of cess pit samples for direct dietary evidence (p. 43) and their potential to provide information about the local economy and social structure (i.e., who ate what). Discusses the problems of reconciling the data recovered from the site with documentary historical evidence (e.g., harvest records, market records, estate records, etc.) (03/07/2006).

Greig, J. 1994
Pollen Analyses of Latrine Fills from Archaeological Sites in Britain: Results and Future Potential. In Aspects of Archaeological Palynology: Methodology and Applications, edited by O. K. Davis, pp. 101-114. AASP Contributions Series Number 29. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation.
Basically a review paper of mostly completed and already published studies, with some new information for some sites. Sites summarized include Chester (13th century AD). Oxford Trill Stream (no date given), Worcester (15th century AD), Tenby (16th century AD), Taunton (16th century AD), Dudley (mid- 17th century AD), and Oxford (17th/18th century AD). Provides a detailed list of the pollen types recovered from cesspit or latrine fills in archaeological contexts at these sites and compares the results with those of macroremains studies. Tabulated list is arranged by categories (staple food plants, herbs and spices, etc.). Notes the occurrence of a wider range of food plants through time. Points out that research is needed on pollen content of food materials, such as honey and wine, that may be an indirect source of pollen to such fills. Some of the pollen types identified may be from plants used for medicinal rather than food purposes. Most samples, especially those from earlier sites, also yielded parasite ova (Ascaris, Trichuris). Studies on individual sites, when available, are listed elsewhere in The Dung File. (19/04/2009).

Greig, J. R. A. 1982
The Interpretation of Pollen Spectra from Urban Archaeological Deposits. In Environmental Archaeology in the Urban Context, edited by A. R. Hall and H. K. Kenward, pp. 47-65. Council for British Archaeology Research Report 43.
Notes that pollen deposition, dispersal and preservation characteristics in urban areas are likely to be quite different to the rural situation. Human pollen component from transport of plant materials in urban areas, domestic animals or processing activities. Reviews pollen evidence from 103 samples from 26 archaeological sites. Pollen data need to be compared with other evidence (plant macros, insects, parasite remains etc.). Parasite remains useful for distinguishing latrine and/or byre localities. Did some experimentation with foodstuffs (e.g., bread, oatcakes etc.) and showed that pollen could survive milling, processing, and cooking. Hence may be preserved in faecal deposits. Found that hay also yielded high percentages of Gramineae pollen, not surprisingly, and pollen from other weedy taxa. Need to sample adjacent "natural" deposits to get an indication of natural or background pollen rain. Semi-natural deposits include ditches etc. Some archaeological samples have very high Gramineae pollen content - obtained from ponds, wells and ditches - represent small catchment areas, grassy banks around urban areas. Another spectrum type is characterised by high amounts of Cerealia pollen - possibly derived from straw or chaff or from remains of cereal foods (parasite ova will confirm presence of dung). Notes marked contrast between archaeological deposits of Roman and medieval times, perhaps denoting greater use of organic materials in medieval times. Also waste disposal more organized and efficient in Roman times. Useful review. (30/12/2002).

Greig, J. R. A. 1996 for 1995
Archaeobotanical and Historical Records Compared - A New Look at the Taphonomy of Edible and Other Useful Plants from the 11th to the 18th Centuries AD. Circaea 12(2):211-247.
An excellent review article, concentrating on the UK. Chart (pp. 237-241) summarizes comparative data for many plants. Outlines some problems working with historical documents - especially knowing what plants are being referred to. Staple foods (barley, oats, peas, rye, and wheat) occur throughout interval, in macro finds and in documentary records. Comments on some rarities (maize, rice). Fruit stones/pips very common. These are often robust and readily preserved, some are from wild fruits (e.g., blackberry), others from cultivated plants (e.g., plums). Imported (to UK) fruits include figs, grapes, and dates. Some vegetable remains have been found (especially from onion, cabbage, and carrot families). Reviews evidence for New World food plants in UK records, notes that acceptance seems to have been slow. Notes a number of plants that occur in documentary records but have not been found in archaeobotanical investigations (e.g., lettuce, turnip, radish). Describes finds of spices and flavourings (e.g., pepper, anise, nutmeg, etc.). Notes that these were imported to UK, so are exotics when found. Some probable medicinal plant remains have been found but it is difficult to know if these represent deliberate use or accidental incorporation as many are wild plants and typical weeds of disturbed ground. Industrial plant remains (flax, hemp, hops) have been found, also perhaps plants used in dying. Greig notes that documentary records of occurrence often precede date of earliest archaeological finds, probably because documents record rarities or interesting things, whereas plants need to be in widespread use to have a chance of being found in archaeological context. Continues with a discussion of techniques for analysis that might yield better recovery. Also notes that better reference material, especially for rarer or exotic taxa, may be needed. (17/05/2002).

Guerra, R. M. S. N. C., G. S. Gazêta, M. Amorim, A. N. Duarte, and N. M. Serra-Freire 2003
Ecological Analysis of Acari Recovered from Coprolites from Archaeological Site of Northeast Brazil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):181- 190.
Site is called Furna do Estrago, in Pernambuco, Brazil, and is a rockshelter site. Three occupation phases, approx. 11,000, 9,100 and 8,500 C14 yr BP, and recent occupation dated to about 1,600 - 1,800 C14 yr BP. Of 209 coprolites collected, 49 were identified as human, rest mostly from other mammals, 96 were from Felidae. Mites and ticks recovered from rehydrated coprolites. Recovered 50 mite specimens: 13 from human, 32 from Felidae coprolites. Ticks in Felidae coprolites probably ingested with their prey. Human populations may have ben suffering from (or at least exposed to) tick-borne diseases. Some mites may have invaded coprolites after their deposition or carried there by coprophilous insects. Some mite species have long been associated with human habitation sites, shows possibly transition to a more sedentary lifestyle. Several new records for species listed in this paper. (01/06/2008).

Häntzschel, W., F. El-Baz, and G. C. Amstutz 1968
Coprolites: An Annotated Bibliography. Geological Society of America Memoir 108 vii + 132 pp.
AEU SCI QE 1 G341 M NO-108 Includes some references to postglacial material, but mainly deals with lithified coprolites (e.g., from dinosaurs) or those from invertebrates (such as comprise copropelic muds). Includes many citations in German and some in French.

Holloway, R. G., and V. M. Bryant Jr 1986
New Directions of Palynology in Ethnobiology. Journal of Ethnobiology 6(1):47-65.
A useful review article on the history of palynology, concentrating on the US and applications to archaeology. Includes review of work on coprolites (pp. 54-55). Discusses the distinction between economic pollen (related to deliberate consumption) and background pollen (from accidental or incidental ingestion) in coprolites. Notes that many economic taxa are zoophilous. This may also provide information on seasonality of occupation (e.g., flower consumption). (11/05/2002).

Horne, P. D. 1985
A Review of the Evidence of Human Endoparasitism in the pre-Columbian New World Through the Study of Coprolites. Journal of Archaeological Science 12:299-310.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 An excellent review paper and good resource for studies up to early 1980s. Includes discussion of evidence for Round worms (including Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus), Flatworms (including Paragonimus, Cryptocotyle lingua, Diphyllobothrium pacificum, and Diphyllobothrium latum) and Thorny-headed worms (including Monoliformis clarki). Notes that pre-Columbian inhabitants of North America were infected with all three phyla of helminths. Results of studies are biased because coprolites are preferentially preserved in dry environments, so not much information is available about parasitism of people in other areas, such as the subhumid areas of the north and coasts. (09/04/2009).

Horrocks, M. 2004
Polynesian Plant Subsistence in Prehistoric New Zealand: A Summary of the Microfossil Evidence. New Zealand Journal of Botany 42:321-334.
A general review article. Mentions two sites with coprolites. 1. Harataonga, on the Great Barrier Island, off northeast North Island. Here, coprolites of dog or human, dated to about 470 C14 yr BP. Contains pollen of Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), one of six introduced plants cultivated by Polynesian occupants of New Zealand prior to European contact. Also contained truffle spores. Also found starch grains of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) root in these coprolites, another one of the introduced food plants. 2. Dog coprolites from Kohika, Bay of Plenty, north shore of North Island. Contained pollen of Sonchus kirkii (local common name: puha) and Typha australis (local common name: raupo), native plants known to have been used as food by the Maori. Also contained Pteridium starch grains - indigenous plant used for food. Review mentions work on pollen, phytoliths, and starch residues from various other archaeological contexts. (22/12/2007).

Jones, A. K. G. 1982
Human Parasite Remains: Prospects for a Quantitative Approach. In Environmental Archaeology in the Urban Context, edited by A. R. Hall and H. K. Kenward, pp. 66-70. Council for British Archaeology Research Reports No. 43. Council for British Archaeology, London, England, UK.
Parasite remains providing distinct evidence of disease. Reviews studies where parasite remains recovered from gut contents of burials, coprolite studies, cess pits (latrines, middens). Notes that ova of Trichuris and Ascaris are most commonly reported types. Difficult to assess degree of infestation from these data. Notes that there may be difficulties of identification (e.g., confusion with spores). Also, often cannot identify to species level, hence difficulty to know if remains found are from humans or animals. Egg dimensions can help in distinguishing taxa, but modern comparable data may not be available. Generally, parasite ova can indicate presence of faecal material, though it may not be possible to make any other inferences. (18/05/2002).

Kenward, H. 1982
Insect Communities and Death Assemblages, Past and Present. In Environmental Archaeology in the Urban Context, edited by A. R. Hall and H. K. Kenward, pp. 71-78. Research Report No. 43. Council for British Archaeology, UK.
AEU HSS DA 90 E62 Discussion concentrates on beetles. Most beetles in archaeological contexts are decomposers. They are especially prominent in medieval deposits because of the accumulated filth and rubbish in such towns, which appear to have been squalid places to live. Modern analogues are difficult to assess due to abundance of imported insect pests. Also some modern native taxa that are extremely common are almost unrecorded in archaeological contexts. Specific beetle communities may be associated with rotting dung and wet decaying vegetable matter. Subdivisions based on work at York, Hull, and various other sites mainly in northern England. (03/07/2006).

Linskens, H. F., and W. Jorde 1997
Pollen as Food and Medicine - A Review. Economic Botany 51(1):78-86.
AEU SCI QK 1 E19 A review article that surveys the nutritional and medicinal uses of pollen for human consumption. Mentions the survival of pollen through digestion, and its appearance in coprolites. Describes (p. 83) the way in which pollen is digested in the human body.

Loreille, O., and F. Bouchet 2003
Evolution of Ascariasis in Humans and Pigs: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):39- 46.
Exploring and reviewing the history of two forms of Ascaris, A. lumbricoides, which infects humans, and A. suum, which infects pigs. Note sure if the ancestral form infacted humans and then was able to infect a new host, pigs, or vice versa. Reviews archaeoparasitological evidence, which suggests form was present in humans long before pig domestication. Genetic investigations attempting to explore recent evolutionary history of the two forms of ascaris. Close pig-human interaction in the archaeologically recent past is probably an important part of this history. (30/06/2007).

Martinson, E., K. J. Reinhard, J. E. Buikstra, and K. Dittmar de la Cruz 2003
Pathoecology of Chiribaya Parasitism. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):195- 205.
Chiribaya sites are in southern coastal Peru. Culture flourished between about 1000 - 1350 AD but perhaps as early as 700 AD. Area is severely arid but suffers occasional periodic (about every 7 years) El Niño events, causing catastrophic flooding that destroyed agreicultural infrastructure. An exceptionally severe and prolonged El Niño event around 1350 AD may have led to the demise of the culture. Examined well- preserved mummies, of humans and animals, at four sites. Found Diphyllobothrium pacificum eggs in 9 out of 19 human coprolite samples from 2 sites. Also found Trichuris trichiura eggs in 2 coprolites. Also large range of ectoparasites (e.g., lice) on human mummies. Analysed dog, llama, guinea pig and human remains for parasites. Discusses disease cycles and reservoir sources in communities, especially in building walls (made from adobe with reeds). Dogs, guinea pigs and humans in houses, increases possibility of cycling. Llamas carried high and varied endoparasite loads (6 in total, 4 species of nematodes and 2 protozoans). (19/04/2008).

Miller, N. F. 1996
Seed Eaters of the Ancient Near East: Human or Herbivore? Current Anthropology 37(3):521-526.
AEU HSS GN 1 C97 Around 10,000 yr BP, a great variety of seeds (including weedy taxa) start appearing in archaeological sites in the Near East. This has been taken to indicate greater population pressure and development of agriculture. But seeds show no morphological change that might indicate domestication. Miller re-considers evidence from two sites: Ali Kosh, east of the southern Tigris River, near the Zagros Mountains, and Abu Hureyra, west of the northern Euphrates River. Macroremains from Ali Kosh were key in developing ideas on early agriculture, especially cultivation of emmer wheat and barley. But seeds are not concentrated in areas where they would be expected if consumed by humans. Rather they are found in middens and trash pits and widely distributed on the site. Most seeds are burned and there is little evidence of wood for fuel (e.g., wood charcoal). So Miller proposes that many charred seeds may result from the use of dung for fuel. Hence seeds represent the diet of herbivores, not of the people who occupied the site. At Abu Hureyra, many seeds are of known fodder plants. The assemblages show changing proportions of steppe plants that may reflect environmental changes, e.g., aridity and soil salinization. Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) was the major source of meat, judging by faunal remains. Miller suggests the site occupants collected gazelle dung and used it for fuel. Gazelles often deposit dung in piles, marking their territory and hence relatively easy to gather and occurs in predictable locations. If the seed assemblages are from dung fuel remains, then the data cannot be used to support the population pressure idea of agricultural development. On the other hand, burned assemblages may provide important environmental evidence. (30/06/2006).

Nesbitt, M. 1995
Plants and People in Ancient Anatolia. Biblical Archaeologist 58(2):68-81.
A plain language review article for the non-specialist. Concentrates on agricultural origins and plant use within farming communities. Notes the continuing extensive use of animal dung as fuel, especially in the central Anatolian plateau. Dung is used where wood is not available - a situation that may have been similar in the past. Notes that dung fuel seed assemblages are different to those that are crop-derived. (19/06/2006).

Pike, A. W. 1968
Recovery of Helminth Eggs from Archaeological Excavations, and Their Possible Usefulness in Providing Evidence for the Purpose of an Occupation.Nature 219:303-304.
AEU SCI Q 1 N28 Reports examination of soil samples from Roman age occupation at Owlesbury, near Winchester, England. Sample from a rectangular pit yielded ascarid eggs, trichurid or cappillarid eggs and Dicrocoelium eggs. Also three other possible egg types that were unidentified. Surface soil sample yielded a few specimens resembling ascarid eggs only. Not clear whether parasite eggs of human or animal origin. Suggests that this may be a useful source of information if identifications could be refined. (13/04/2009).

Pirozynski, K. A. 1989
Methods in Quaternary Ecology #9: Fungi. Geoscience Canada 16(3):183-189.
Reviews the value of studies of fungal remains, especially spores, in palaeoecology. Cites several studies of fungal remains from dung, or site where fungal remains indicated that dung was part of the deposit.

Reinhard, K. J. 1990
Archaeoparasitology in North America. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 82:145- 163.
AEU SCI GN 1 A49 A review paper. Notes that parasitological research is founded in archaeology and physical anthropology. In North America, most studies are on coprolites, hence have contextual data, and are often focused on dietary questions. Archaeoparasitology focuses on helminths and arthropods. Helminths are various kinds of internal worms (endoparasites). In coprolites, these are mainly represented by eggs and larvae. Also some research focused on external parasites (ectoparasites), mainly on arthropods, such as lice. Notes that in North America coprolite research has focused on three areas: the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and west Texas. (This may be because of factors influencing preservation of coprolites (location of caves and prevalence of dry climate) or because this is where the main research groups are located). Notes that very little work on mummies in North America - contrast with South America and Europe. Comments that few latrine studies have been done in North America - contrast with Europe. Continues with a region by region review of studies in North America. Many of the papers he discusses are listed and summarised elsewhere in The Dung File. In SW US, most coprolites are recovered from caves or from Anasazi sites. Notes contrast in parasite occurrence between hunter-gatherer sites (fewer parasites) and agricultural sites (more parasites). Notes that even when parasite remains are found, cannot assume that there were human infections. Not always certain that coprolites are of human origin. Also points out that some of the parasites found in ancient contexts had been thought to have been brought in through European colonization, two in particular, Strongyloides and hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale). Some identification problems. Preservation issues may preclude identification to species level. Eggs may be similar in different species and difficult to distinguish from each other. Other parasites may be incidental and due to ingestion of infected food or association with infected animals (e.g., dogs). These may not be strictly human parasites ("false parasitism"). Parasites present throughout prehistoric time, from Hogup and Danger Caves (around 10,000 yr BP) onwards. Research is linked to palaeopathology. (29/07/2005).

Reinhard, K. J. 1992
Parasitology as an Interpretive Tool in Archaeology. American Antiquity 57:231-245.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Reviews history of intestinal parasite studies in archaeology. Distinguishes between paleoparasitology (restricted to non-human material) and archaeoparasitology (examination of parasite remains from archaeological contexts, thus human coprolites). Reviews life cycles of some common parasites. Describes some of the inferences that can be made from parasite studies (e.g., dietary, health, nutrition, transhumance and trade, environment, and archaeological soil/sediment formation).

Reinhard, K. J., and V. M. Bryant Jr 1992
Coprolite Analysis: A Biological Perspective on Archaeology. In Archaeological Method and Theory: Volume 4, edited by M. B. Schiffer, pp. 245-288. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson and London.
AEU HSS CC 1 A242 Comprehensive review. Mainly covers North American studies. Reference list is useful and extensive.

Sutton, M. Q. 1994
Indirect Evidence in Paleonutrition Studies. In Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, edited by K. D. Sobolik, pp. 98-111. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
Mentions coprolite studies in the course of a review.

Sutton, M. Q., R. S. Orfila, B. Huerta, and P. Martz 2006
Analysis of Possible Paleofecal Samples from Pellejo Chico Alto, Peru: Results and Lessons. Journal of Archaeological Science 33:1600-1604.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2006.02.009 Four specimens recovered from a trash pit at a house excavation from an archaeological site in Peru dated to 1400 - 1532 AD. Thought these were coprolites in the field, largely on grounds of context and morphology. Identification later confirmed by a coprolite expert (not named). Subsequent analysis, however, showed they were not coprolites, but large pieces of tissue. Thought that these could have been the remains of a meat stew thrown in the trash. (20/11/2008).

Tomescu, A. M. F., V. Radu, and D. Moise 2003
High Resolution Stratigraphic Distribution of Coprolites within Eneolithic Middens, a Case Study: Hârsova-Tell (Constanta County, Southeast Romania). Environmental Archaeology 8(2):97-109.
Investigated one midden deposit (C521) associated with Gumelnita culture, dated ca. 4600 - 4000 yr BC. Fish vertebrae in midden indicated that it was deposited over about 12 - 18 months comprising warm season (summer-fall), cold season (fall-winter-early spring), and warm season (late spring- early summer). Seasonality given by growth rings on vertebrae of two fish species: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and zander (Stizostedion lucioperca). Site is located on north bank of Danube River and fishing was an important component of the subsistence economy. Cohesive coprolites usually containing fish bones recovered during wet screening. Low cohesive coprolites, generally with none or few fish bones, fall apart in screening and are not recovered. Cohesive coprolites produced by carnivores or omnivores; second type by herbivores or omnivores. Identified more than 650 stratigraphic units during excavation, each probably related to one load of refuse deposited on the midden; units were thin lenticular layers. Grouped more than 500 of these into 118 stratigraphic sequences based largely on position and compositin. Wet screening (4 mm mesh) and hand sorting material retained on mesh. [Why use such a coarse screen? Fine material - e.g., small fish bones, plant material, seeds, fish scales - must have been lost. Clearly only a partial assemblage recovered.] Coprolites concentrated in lower part of midden, with another smaller grouping in the upper levels. Fish bones are also concentrated in lower part of the midden, though appear throughout. Mammal bones showed more complex pattern though a tendency to be concentrated in the upper part of the midden. Occurrence of coprolites may be correlated with seasonality, i.e., more likely to be preserved intact in warm weather. Hence coprolite occurrence may preserve a seasonal signal. Not clear what deposited the coprolites. Three possibilities: dogs, pigs or humans. Bone in midden with gnaw marks suggests dogs. Also coprolite shape suggests dogs. But this can't be confirmed (would need testing by biomarker molecules - impractical given the number of samples). [Not clear that all coprolites have to be deposited by the same species. Couldn't some be from humans and others from dogs?] Some bones in midden (not from coprolites) show evidence of damage by digestion, suggesting disintegrated faecal material is also present. Possible that high bone content of some coprolites may have aided their preservation (e.g., through permineralisation) - no chemical tests done to confirm this. (30/06/2008).

van Geel, B. 1978
A Palaeoecological Study of Holocene Peat Bog Sections in Germany and The Netherlands, Based on the Analysis of Pollen, Spores and Macro- and Microscopic Remains of Fungi, Algae, Cormophytes and Animals. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 25(1):1-120.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Paper focuses on postglacial ecology and development of a bog. Contains extensive documentation and photomicrographs of the macro- and microfossils found in the investigation. Among these are some fungal spores that may reflect coprophilous fungi (p. 46), including Type 7A Chaetomium sp. (p. 51 and Plate II), cellulose decomposers that may also be associated with dung.

van Geel, B., S. J. P. Bohncke, and H. Dee 1981
A Palaeoecological Study of an Upper Late Glacial and Holocene Sequence from "De Borchert", the Netherlands. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 31:367-448.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Site is in east Netherlands, near the German border. Mainly a palaeoecological study. Includes illustrations and descriptions of fungal ascospores that may indicate dung (or may be related to decaying wood). These include Type 55A1, and Type 55A2, and Type 112 (referred to Cercophora).

van Geel, B., D. P. Hallewas, and J. P. Pals 1983
A Late Holocene Deposit Under the Westfriese Zeedijk near Enkhuizen (Prov. of Nord-Holland, The Netherlands): Palaeoecological and Archaeological Aspects. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 38:269-335.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Site is on the west side of the Ijsselmeer. Sequence begins in Late Bronze Age. Mainly a palaeoecological study, emphasizing the impact of rising water levels on the landscape. Mentions Type 169, an ascospore probably of Sordariaceae, which are associated with dung (or rotting wood). Shows illustrations of this type. It is found in their Zone II (ca. 2850 - 2700 yr BP).

van Wijngaarden-Bakker, L. H., and K. D. Troostheide 2003
Bones and Eggs: The Archaeological Presence of the Grass Snake Natrix natrix (L.) in The Netherlands. Environmental Archaeology 8(2):111-118.
Grass snakes lay eggs and often use dung heaps for this purpose. Snake bones (vertebrae) found from wet sites, habitation sites, associated with domestic refuse. West Netherlands, sites date from Mesolithic - 5 sites in total. Found associated with other wetland indicators (amphibians, voles). Nine archaeological sites yielded eggs of grass snakes. Sites group into two different contexts. River dunes with late Mesolithic to early Neolithic occupation - here probably natural in rotting vegetation. At other 5 localities (7 sites), eggs were found in dung layers or near a farm. Eggs had not hatched. Most sites are of late Iron Age to early Roman period. Eight other sites produced eggs but not from dated contexts. One egg from 13th century farm (Gouda). Area of Midden-Delfland (near Rotterdam) investigations - late Iron Age- early Roman dense occupation. In total, 150 grass snake eggs from 13 sites. Appears that dung and reeds used as house flooring (dwellings built on peat). Probably eggs gathered up with the dung from the dungheap. Dungheaps consistent with farming based on animal husbandry, especially cattle. Generally this was a wetland area. Some finds reported here from 7000 yr BP. Shows there was a breeding population of grass snakes in The Netherlands for at least this long. (30/06/2008).

Wilke, P. J., and H. J. Hall 1975
Analysis of Ancient Feces: A Discussion and Annotated Bibliography. Archaeological Research Facility, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, California, USA 47 pp.
AEU SCI QE 899 Z9 W68

Winter, J. C. 1976
The Process of Farming Diffusion in the Southwest and Great Basin. American Antiquity 41(4):421-429.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 A review paper examining the transition from hunter/gatherer to horticulture/agriculture lifeways in Utah and the Great Basin areas. No primary data in this paper. Uses data, including coprolite studies, from caves, specifically Hogup Cave, Clydes Cavern, and Danger Cave, to construct the argument. Coprolite data used as evidence of diet and therefore subsistence base. (21/11/2008).

Yarnell, R. A. 1994
Investigations Relevant to the Native Development of Plant Husbandry in Eastern North America: A Brief and Reasonably True Account. In Agricultural Origins and Development in the Midcontinent, edited by W. Green, pp. 7-24. Report 19. Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Reviews work in eastern and central USA beginning in 1910 related to development of plant husbandry. Discusses remains from rockshelters in Ozarks, Arkansas and Kentucky, including plant remains from coprolites. Tied in with discussion on origin of agriculture and sedentism. Critical sites include Salts Cave, Kentucky, and many in Illinois. Notes the importance of AMS dating in late 1980s for sorting out domestication chronology. Useful review article with good bibligraphy, though little of the discussion focusses on coprolite material. (11/11/2007).

Number of citations: 57


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