The Dung File consists of a list of references dealing with pollen, parasites, and plant remains in coprolites and latrine fills from archaeological and palaeoenvironmental sites. The focus is on studies in North America.

The Dung File is subdivided into eleven sections: four depend on the origin of the deposits being investigated (Part 1: Mostly Human, Part 2: Mainly Mammal, Part 3: Animal Middens, Part 4: Other Critters), there are two broader categories, Part 5: General and Review Articles, Part 6: Field and Laboratory Methods, one focussed on theses, Part 7: Theses, and two focussed on modern comparative studies, Part 8: Comparative Studies - Human and Part 9: Comparative Studies - Mammal. Finally, there are a number of articles from news magazines and the popular press (Part 10: Popular Press and Commentary) and some less readily available items listed in Part 11: Conference Abstracts and Grey Literature.

The call numbers are for the library system at the University of Alberta. The remarks in black are my comments.

Part 1: Mostly Human

Aikens, C. M. 1970
Hogup Cave. Reprinted in 1999. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 93. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. xiii + 286 pp.
Hogup Cave is in northwestern Utah, northeast of Danger Cave, and west of the Great Salt Lake. Pictures show the site on a slope overlooking the Bonneville salt flats. Consider that most of the deposits in the cave, comprising mostly organic material, was predominantly anthropogenic in origin. C-14 dates span roughly 8300 yr BP, lower levels, to around 500 yr BP, upper levels. Several dates were from dung. Wide range of artifacts recovered, including stone tools, bone tools, and some pottery. Perishable material culture remains were recovered in some quantity and include artifacts from hide (including moccasins), textiles (mainly basketry), and wooden artifacts, including arrows, pegs, and digging sticks. Some of the woven materials show fine craftsmanship. The site also yielded a net made from Apocynum fibre in remarkable condition. The net was 140 ft long and 4 ft wide and was wrapped in a bundle when found. It was found after excavation completed so its provenance in the deposit is unknown. Report includes Appendix III ("Preliminary Analysis of the Hogup Cave Coprolites") by Gary F. Fry (pp. 247-250) and Appendix IV ("Hogup Cave: Comparative Pollen Analysis of Human Coprolites and Cave Fill") by Gerald Kelso (pp. 251-262). These are itemised elsewhere in The Dung File. (30/07/2005).

Allison, M. J., A. Pezzia, I. Hasigawa, and E. Gerszten 1974
A Case of Hookworm Infection in a Pre-Columbian American. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 41:103- 106.
AEU SCI GN 1 A49 Mummy from Tiahuanaco, southern Peru, dated around 890 - 950 AD. Examination of portions of intestine and contents. SEM and microscopic examination revealed presence of hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale). No identifiable eggs recovered. Macroremains from faecal material suggest a meal consisting of corn, beans, and meat, probably ground in a soft stone mortar (silica particles).

Aspöck, H., H. Auer, and O. Picher 1996
Trichuris trichiura Eggs in the Neolithic Glacier Mummy from the Alps. Parasitology Today 12:255-256.
AEU SCI QL 757 P2845 Describes analytical stages in investigation of the remains which are dated to about 5200-5300 yr BP. Eggs found in colon contents. Believed to be the oldest finding of whipworm infestation in a human.

Bain, A. 1998
A Seventeenth-Century Beetle Fauna from Colonial Boston. Historical Archaeology 32(3):38-48.
AEU HSS E 11 S67 Reports on beetle remains recovered from Feature 4 privy, Cross Street Back Lot site, Boston, Massachusetts. Privy may have been constructed as early as 1650 AD. 64% of beetles recovered are from European or introduced species. Beetles are representative of distinct habitats. Pest fauna: introduced fauna, includes pests of peas and grain (may have entered privy as faecal contents, floor sweepings, or spoiled products). Several of these taxa are present at this site earlier than thought from previous research. Compost and dung fauna: comprise over half the beetles identified; most are generalists rather than indicative of specific animals. Carrion fauna, and mould and fungus fauna. Also some beetles indicative of wood, both coniferous and deciduous. Some components of this assemblage appear strongly associated with house structures (probably entered privy as floor sweepings). This assemblage may be the earliest record of 20 of the 24 introduced beetles; several occur here at least a century earlier than hitherto known.

Bain, A. 2001
Archaeoentomological and Archaeoparasitological Reconstructions at Îlot Hunt (CeEt-110): New Perspectives in Historical Archaeology (1850-1900). BAR International Series 973. Archaeopress, Oxford, England, UK vi + 153 pp.
A published version of the thesis, Bain (1999).

Bain, A., and L. LeSage 1998
A Late Seventeenth Century Occurrence of Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in North America. The Canadian Entomologist 130:715-719.
Phyllotreta striolata (striped flea beetle), a pest of crucifers (e.g., cabbage, turnips), is a significant pest of agricultural crops. Thought to have been introduced to North America in early 19th century. P. striolata remains recovered from privy at Cross Street Back Lot (Boston, Massachusetts, USA); privy deposits accumulated 1675-1700 AD. Shows this beetle was present at least a century earlier than previously thought. Probably introduced through shipping (e.g., in ballast) or on imported foodstuffs.

Beech, M. 1993
Waste Disposal in Historic Prague: Archaeology, Toilets and Faeces. EKOjournal 6(2):20-21.
Discusses macroremains from Holan site, Prague. Medieval site dating to 13th-15th centuries. Sample from 14th century u-shaped pit (probably a toilet pit) especially rich. Contained fruit stones (plum, sloe, cherry, raspberry, grape), vegetable seeds (marrow), coprolites, some small bones, and insect remains (fly puparia, dung beetle fragments).

Belshaw, R. 1989, for 1988
A Note on the Recovery of Thoracochaeta zosterae (Haliday) (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) from Archaeological Deposits. Circaea 6(1):39-41.
Thoracochaeta zosterae is a fly found in decaying seaweed at the high watermark on coasts. It was common and most abundant taxon in some archaeological deposits in London, mainly cess pit fills, dating from Saxon times to the 18th century - in total, 12 contexts from 7 sites. No evidence of seaweed in fills where found. The fly may have been pre-adapted to take advantage of the new niche in cess pits, waterlogged environments and probably abundant salts from urine. Has not been recovered from modern cess pits. Hence danger of extrapolating from modern ecological preferences to make inferences about the past. (05/04/2009).

Berg, G. E. 2002
Last Meals: Recovering Abdominal Contents from Skeletonized Remains. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:1349-1365.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1006/jasc.2001.0796 Reviews various sampling strategies that have been used to obtain information about foods from abdominal cavity contents of burials. Notes that sediment in abdominal cavity has been assumed to contain intestinal contents (hence last meals) especially for supine burials. Proposes a systematic sampling strategy to gather interpretable samples. Tested by collecting four samples from burials (three for pollen and one for macros). Tested approach by sampling burials at two sites. Five burials from three closely adjacent sites in Arizona (does not give age of burials but sounds as if they are late prehistoric) and twelve intact burials from a site near Nordby, Denmark (again, age not given but from in-text context eppear to be medieval). In total, analyzed 61 pollen samples and 22 macros samples. Includes tabulated results. Notes that controls (off burial) samples are necessary to show that pollen taxa from abdominal cavity samples are above background values and/or are not part of the regional assemblage and hence indicate consumption and dietary or medicinal use. Divided pollen taxa into four groups: background, medicinal/water plants, dietary plants and excluded (for various reasons including over- representation). Notes that many plants in category 2 and 3 are zoophilous (or hygrophilous) plants. Twelve cases (4 from Arizona, 8 from Denmark) produced pollen data. Includes a detailed discussion of assemblages from each case. Compared samples from abdominal and sacral areas in burials. Also reports the macros analysis of samples from pelvic cavity of burials. Data table shows fewer taxa. Notes that remains are mostly uncarbonized, even though food likely cooked, although Arizona samples contained more carbonized remains, probably as a result of different cooking practices. Three of the Arizona samples also contained faunal remains. Results showed that samples from the sacral are were most productive especially for pollen but also for macros. Many of the plants detected, especially in Danish samples, had probable medicinal uses, perhaps not surprising if individuals were sick or being treated just prior to death. Noted presence of Acornus (7 burials) and Hypericum (4 burials) in Danish samples. In Arizona samples, Larrea was most common medicinal plant. Discusses application of these methods for future research. (02/05/2009).

Bethell, P. H., L. J. Goad, and R. P. Evershed 1994
The Study of Biomarkers of Human Activity: The Use of Coprostanol in the Soil as an Indicator of Human Fecal Material. Journal of Archaeological Science 21:619-632.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 Reviews biochemistry of coprostanol and its usefulness as a biomarker in soil samples for detecting the presence of faecal material. Reports on work on samples from four sites from Europe: one modern latrine and three archaeological sites, the oldest dating to Roman times, plus processed samples of fresh animal manure and human faeces as controls. Used the modern latrine pit samples to "calibrate" for the archaeological sites. On this basis, most of the archaeological material was confrmed as containing faeces with possible exception of one pit sample from the Roman site. [However, one point that is not explicitly addressed here is whether the unclear signal from the Roman site, which is the oldest tested, is due to biodegradation of the targeted biomolecules. In other words, does this technique have limited application for older samples or certain sedimentary contexts. The authors do note that coprostanols appear to be highly resistant to degradation and persisent in the geological record.] Tests on modern faeces show results that are promising in terms of the potential to distinguish human from other animal faeces on basis of biomolecular markers, although more work is needed. Paper contains considerable discussion of the techniques and the factors that might have a bearing on the adequacy of the extractions and dectection. The lipid chemistry discussed is quite complex though the overall results are interesting. (25/04/2009).

Bouchet, F. 1995
Recovery of Helminth Eggs from Archeological Excavations of the Grand Louvre (Paris, France). The Journal of Parasitology 81:785-787.
AEU SCI QL 757 J86 Examined 12 coprolites and 66 soil samples from 41 pits, dating from 11th-16th centuries AD. A wide spectrum of parasite eggs were recovered, especially from soil samples: Trichuris, Ascaris, Metastrongylus, Heterakis, Ascarida, ?Filicollis, ?Dicrocoelium, Fasciola hepatica, Toxocara. Allowed identificationof different functional areas within the complex, e.g., a farmyard, a kennel. Latrine samples contained Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum; the latter suggests the occupants probably consumed liver and tripe.

Boyer, P. 1999
The Parasites. In Roman and Medieval Occupation in Causeway Lane, Leicester, edited by A. Connor and R. Buckley, pp. 344-346. Leicester Archaeology Monograph 5. ULAS (University of Leicester Archaeological Services), Leicester, England, UK.
Analyzed 247 samples from 115 Roman and medieval contexts, including some coprolites (presumably human though this is not stated). Samples were mostly mineralized and required dilute HCl treatment to break them down and release the macroremains. Trichuris and Ascaris ova recovered. Also some ova from Fasciola hepatica (sheep liver fluke) in two samples. Greater parasite ova recovery from medieval than Roman layers. Evidence shows parasitic infection was probably widespread. High concentrations suggested the occurrence of three Roman and eight medieval cesspits. (03/07/2006).

Bresciani, J., W. Dansgaard, B. Fredskild, and M. Ghisler (P. Grandjean, J. C. Hansen, J. P. H. Hansen, N. Haarløv, B. Lorentzen, P. Nansen, A. M. Rørdam, and H. Tauber) 1991
7 Living Conditions. In The Greenland Mummies. English edition of the volume originally published Danish and Greenlandic in 1985 by The Greenland Museum, edited by J. P. Hansen, J. Meldgaard and J. Nordqvist, pp. 150-167. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK.
Mummies from Qilakitsoq, west Greenland, and are dated to about 1475 ± 50 AD. Intestinal contents of mummy II/7 contained meat, plant remains, and pollen (grasses, dwarf birch, white arctic bell-heather, crowberry, willow, mountain sorrel), plus some wood fragments, and lice (pp. 157-160). Also recovered eggs from pinworm (Oxyuris vermicularis) (p. 164).

Brothwell, D. 1996
European Bog Bodies: Current State of Research and Preservation. In Human Mummies: A Global Survey of their Status and the Techniques of Conservation, edited by K. Spindler, H. Wilfing, E. Rastbichler-Zissernig, D. zur Nedden and H. Nothdurfter, pp. 161-172. The Man in the Ice Volume 3. Springer, Wien, New York, USA.
AEU HSS GN 293 H85 Briefly mentions the analysis of gut contents of bog bodies.

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1974
Pollen Analysis of Prehistoric Human Feces from Mammoth Cave. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 203-249. Academic Press Inc., New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 25 in the volume. Analysis of 17 coprolites from Mammoth Cave in Kentucky. The same specimens were examined for macros by Stewart (1974). Used a 200 grain count; some samples yielded few or no pollen grains. Assemblage dominated by pollen from Pinus, Carya, Cheno-Ams and Gramineae, with Quercus prominent in some samples, and Ambrosiaceae and Other Compositae pollen. Arboreal pollen types (including Pinus, Carya, Quercus) probably represent accidental ingestion but, when present in high percentage, may indicate seasonality (spring); all are anemophilous (wind-borne) pollen types. Pollen from Cheno-Ams generally abundant; probably related to ingestion of Chenopodium seeds, since there is a high correlation between the two occurrences. Grass pollen only abundant when chewed grass plant material (maygrass seeds) also present; no grass pollen from domesticates (i.e., Zea mays). Similarly, high abundance of Compositae pollen correlated with sunflower (Helianthus) seed remains. Occasional high abundance of usually rare (often entomophilous) pollen types may indicate the ingestion of flowers; these include Liguliflorae (perhaps from dandelions, consumption of flowers or greens), Sweetflag (Acorus), and Liliaceae. In combination with seed remains, pollen evidence used to infer seasonality of some samples. Most samples suggest spring or early summer. Pollen from "economic" plants may indicate fall or winter (stored seeds) consumption. (19/Aug/2011).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1974
Prehistoric Diet in Southwest Texas: The Coprolite Evidence. American Antiquity 39:407-420.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Pollen analysis of 43 human coprolites from site 41 VV 162 in SW Texas. Site spans 2500 BC - 500 AD. Collected surface pollen samples to characterize the area and compare with coprolite pollen spectra. Looked at pollen and macros content. High percentages of zoophilous pollen taxa in coprolite samples. Suggests that this is from eating flowers or inflorescences (perhaps steeped to make teas). One sample contained 81% yucca pollen. Most common types eaten were probably yucca, agave, and sotol. Also pollen from various types of cactus plants. Yucca flowers, cactus stems, and onion bulbs seem to show a strong association. Many anemophilous pollen types may have been ingested incidentally as surface pollen spectra show they could be considered "background." No information on vegetation change between site occupation times and now as types are all present in vegetation in region around site. Seasonality indicators (flower occurrence) suggest occupation generally in spring-early summer. (11/05/2002).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1975
Pollen as an Indicator of Prehistoric Diets in Coahuila, Mexico. Bulletin of the Texas Archaeological Society 46:87- 106.
AEU HSS F 381 T35 Pollen analysis of 47 human coprolites from Frightful Cave, Coahuila, Mexico. Three groups: 15 from lower levels (9,500 - 7000 yr BP), 16 from middle levels (7,000 - 4,000 yr BP), and 16 from upper levels (4,000 - 1,600 yr BP). Lower levels contain pollen from Opuntia, Leucaena, Umbelliferae. Probably eating prickly pear cactus flowers, also possibly lead tree (Leucaena) flowers, Umbelliferae pollen in one sample at 90% indicating ingestion of plants somehow. In middle levels, pollen types are replaced by Acacia, Agave, Solanum. Eating Agave flowers. In upper level, pollen from Dalea, Dasylirion and Portulaca become more important. Indicates spring and early fall occupancy.

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1986
Prehistoric Diet: A Case for Coprolite Analysis. In Ancient Texans: Rock Art and Lifeways along the Lower Pecos, edited by H. J. Shafer, pp. 132-135. Published for the White Museum of the San Antonio Museum Association, San Antonio, Texas. Texas Monthly Press, Austin, Texas, USA.
Plain-language review. History of coprolite studies, beginning with Harshberger (late 19th century) but really becoming established through work of Callen (1960s). First task is to distinguish human from non-human coprolites (size, shape, contents, trisodium phosphate solution test). Human coprolites contain diverse contents (seeds, pollen, shell, bone, feathers, insect fragments, plant fibres, etc.). Information on diet and health, and perhaps seasonality and food preparation procedures. Pollen contents indicate flowers (yucca, sotol, agave, cactus, and sunflower) were important dietary items in Lower Pecos region. Plant taxa show similar semidesert habitat present through last 6000 years. Some seeds (millet, sunflower, cactus) probably ground and cooked as gruel or type of unleavened bread. Skeletal elements in coprolites suggest that small animals (rodents, lizards, birds) were eaten whole. Probably provided most of the meat component of diet, rather than large game. Plant sources made up major part of diet. Fats and sugars not abundant in diet. These ancient people had a generally healthy diet.

Butler, V. L. 1996
Tui Chub Taphonomy and the Importance of Marsh Resources in the Western Great Basin of North America. American Antiquity 61(4):699-717.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Outlines the dispute as to whether marsh-based resources, specifically fish, at the Stillwater Marsh site, western Nevada, would have been rich enough to form a subsistence base for prehistoric populations. Research focussed especially on fish remains. Exploring whether these remains result from human use of fish or are a result of normal, if catastrophic, die-offs. Archaeological record dates back to almost 5000 yr BP. Fish assemblages are dominated by tui chub (Gila bicolor) and Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis), with the former overwhelmingly dominant. Investigated population age structure of fish remains. Assumed that cultural use should selectively concentrate on certain age/size classes. Used opercle size as a surrogate measure of fish size, which then allowed estimation of age. Archaeological assemblage showed a disproportionate number of mid-sized fish, with fewer smaller and very large fish. If the assemblage had resulted from catastrophic event, then size and therefore age profile should have shown many more smaller fish. Examined potential biases that might have affected age/size structure of the assemblage (wet-screening sieve size, differential breakage of the opercles). Concludes that these factors are not enough to account for absence of smaller fish in the assemblage. Assemblage shows little evidence of burning (which might indicate cultural use). No cut marks were observed on fish bones. No obvious signs of digestive processes on the fish remains. Can't say they weren't consumed, but no conclusive evidence that they were. Discussed evidence from other studies of variable element abundances that might indicate fish processing (e.g., filletting). But ethnographic evidence suggests that tui chub were used or consumed whole. If assemblage is natural, then elemental abundance should be related to bone density (i.e., resistance to weathering). Water sorting along lake shore could also differentially affect bone elements. Overall, bone assemblage does not indicate water sorting. However, vertebrae were relatively scarce, which might reflect processing and cultural use of fish. Concludes that the tui chub were a key food resource for inhabitants of the Stillwater Marsh site. Reports on analysis of one human coprolite specimen from Fish Slough Cave (p. 707) which showed little effect of digestive processes (such as staining or etching by digestive enzymes) on fish bones. Also, in an end note (p. 717), mentions experiment in feeding a coho salmon (Oncorhyncus kisutch) to a dog and finding only three identifiable skeletal elements in the faeces. (24/04/2009) .

Cahill, J., K. Reinhard, D. Tarler, and P. Warnock 1991
Scientists Examine Remains of Ancient Bathroom. Biblical Archaeology Review 27:64-69.
Investigation of cesspit residues from City of David, Jerusalem, dating from 7th - 6th centuries B.C. Most pollen from four plant families (mustard, carrot, mint, and composite families). Suggests diet included salad plants, potherbs, and spices. Presence of parasite eggs of tapeworm (Taenia) and whipworm (Trichuris). Suggests consumption of poorly- cooked meat.

Callen, E. O. 1965
Food Habits of Some Pre-Columbian Mexican Indians. Economic Botany 19(4):335-343.
AEU SCI QK 1 E19 A review paper, summarizing work at several sites in central and South America, including Huaca Prieta de Chicama in Peru, Ocampo Caves in Tamaulipas State of Mexico, sites in Tehuacan area of southern Mexico including Coxcatlan Cave (TC50). Age ranges from about 5000 BC (i.e., about 7000 yr BP) to about 1500 AD. Most of the data was already published in Callen's previous papers but this is a useful summary. reports on identification of many important food items in the coprolites including Canavalia, Phaseolus, Capsicum, Cucurbita, Setaria, Agave, Amaranthus, Zea, Opuntia, Lemaireocereus, and Ceiba. Plants ofen identified from plant tissue remains rather than seeds. Also notes presence of insect remains in the Tamaulipas coprolites, including dung beetles and one beetle (Thylodrias contractus) previously thought to be an Old World species that came to New World with Spaniards but Callen's work shows it was present much earlier. (11/04/2009).

Callen, E. O. 1967
The First New World Cereal. American Antiquity 32:535-538.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Coprolites from Ocampo Caves, Tamaulipas, Mexico, yielded seeds of Setaria (foxtail millet), identified as from Setaria geniculata. Found in coprolites from lower levels, dated to ca. 6000 - 5500 yr BP. Coprolites almost 2000 yrs older yielded Opuntia and Agave remains. Some millet grains of larger size may indicate selection process in harvesting. Proportion of Setaria in coprolites increases to 50% at around 3400 yr BP, thereafter declines following introduction of maize. Setaria also found in coprolites from Tehuacán Caves, Mexico, in oldest levels dated to around 7500 yr BP. Use of Setaria appeared to continue here after introduction of maize, to a greater extent than at Ocampo Caves. Noted differences in breakage of seeds in older (El Riego phase, > 7200 yr BP) and later (Santa Maria phases, < 2900 yr BP) levels. Experimental work to investigate effects of preparation. Concludes that earlier grains were prepared by pounding/stirring with a mortar and pestle, whereas later samples were prepared by grinding (e.g., with a mano and metate). [The numerical data presented here do not seem to support this observation]. Concludes that the grinding technique was first developed with other grass seeds before being transferred to maize preparation.

Callen, E. O., and T. W. M. Cameron 1960
A Prehistoric Diet Revealed in Coprolites. The New Scientist 18(1, 7 July):35-40.
AEU SCI Q 1 N53 A classic paper; the beginning of scientific analysis of coprolites. Reports on the examination of coprolites from Huaca Prieta, Peru. Describes techniques used to rehydrate and examine coprolites. Shows that diet contained sea-food (shellfish, crabs, sea urchin) which was a major dietary component; not surprising for a site in a coastal location. Found seed of Capsicum (pepper), probably chili, also remains of beans (epidermal cells), identified as Phaseolus (green beans or lima beans) and Canavalia. Suggest that whole bean pods were eaten fresh. Some plant tissue identified as from cucurbit (squash); rinds and seeds were found in archaeological context. Long discussion as to what part of the squash was eaten; some authorities believe that only the seeds were roasted and eaten not the flesh. Perhaps some evidence of roots and tubers, as fibres were also found in coprolites. Reports on the abdominal contents of skeletonised body found in the deposits. Evidence for a varied diet including plant and sea-food; shows that more than one food type was consumed at a meal. Examined samples for parasite remains, found possible Diphyllobothrium (tapeworm) eggs in one sample. (31/03/2002).

Callen, E. O., and P. S. Martin 1969
Plant Remains in Some Coprolites from Utah. American Antiquity 34(3):329-331.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Coprolites from Glen Canyon. Compares pollen and macros (10 samples, 9 human and 1 animal). Same samples analyzed for pollen by Martin and Sharrock (1964). Authors note that some samples show good agreement between macros and pollen taxa, in others there is a lack of congruence. Two samples had cactus (Opuntia) dominant in both analyses. Rest did not form close match. Cleome was prominent in pollen analysis but was not found in macrofossil analysis. They conclude that macros give a better indication of diet than pollen.

Chamberlain, Andrew T. and Michael Parker Pearson 2001
Earthly Remains: The History and Science of Preserved Human Bodies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, UK. 207 pages.
This book covers a wider assortment of topics. Includes discussion of mummification (both natural and artificial), bog bodies, frozen bodies, trace impressions (footprints, handprints, fingerprints), and modern western attitudes towards corpses and death. Also includes a discussion of the modern cult of the corpse (Lenin, Mao, and Eva Peron, for example) used as a legitimization of power. Intestinal contents of bog bodies from northern Europe discussed on pp. 71-74. Well-illustrated volume that covers a lot of ground. Written by two academics but aimed at a non-specialist readership. Has a useful set of references. (01/Mar/2013)

Chaves, S. A. M., and K. J. Reinhard 2003
Paleopharmacology and Pollen: Theory, Method, and Application. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Supplement 1):207- 211.
Paleopharmacology involves the investigation of what people in the past have used to deal with or expel internal parasites. Reviews knowledge of Aztec pharmacopoeia, including use of Chenopodium to expel parasites. Look for evidence of this in coprolites. Reviews Reinhard's work on this. Notes pollen of Ephedra and Larrea in US southwest, may both have been used to treat diarrhea. Notes that difficult to know if plant was used as food or medicine. Reviews skeleton-based evidence for presence of parasitic diseases in antiquity. Notes use of phytoliths, pollen, and seeds in coprolites to document plant use. Describes analysis of three coprolites, of human origin, from site of Pedra Furada in Brazil, dating between 8450 and 7230 C14 yr BP. Found pollen grains from a range of plants that are recorded in local ethnobotanical studies, include several used as vermifuges (expel worms). Possibly this indicates that population was carrying parasites. Results remain tentative. Don't know if folk medicines actually work, are really effective, or were used for treatment in the past, nor what amounts may have been ingested. (24/11/2007).

Chaves, S. A. M., and K. J. Reinhard 2006
Critical Analysis of Coprolite Evidence of Medicinal Plant Use, Piauí, Brazil. Palaeogography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237:110- 118.
AEU SCI QE 500 P15 DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.11.031 Reviews palaeopharmacology - deductions about medicinal plant use from evidence, including coprolites, from archaeological sites. Notes value of measuring pollen copncentrations to assess intentional use of plant material as opposed to background levels. Some possible medicinal plants noted from studies on southern US include Chenopodium (as a vermifuge, to treat worms), Salix (willow), Ephedra (mormon tea), and Larrea (creosote bush). Study looked at 5 coporolites from NE Brazil, the caatinga ecoregion. Coprolites collected from an archaeological site in a rockshelter, Boqueirâo da Pedra Furada. Coprolites were obtained from three Holocene levels, constrained by radiocarbon dates (6100 - 7300 C14 yr BP). [We are not told which specimen is from which level. All five are treated as though from one level.] Found 30 pollen taxa (15 AP, 15 NAP). Consider that 12 taxa from genera with medicinal properties. Were these actually used as medicines? Skeletal and dental evidence from human remains in the region indicating damage that could be due to anaemia, one cause of which is whipworm. Problems may also have been caused by hookworm. Checked the genera found in coprolites against the ethnobotanical record from the region. All 12 plant general have match in ethnobotanical accounts. Six were used for treating intstinal parasites, two for worms, two for analgesics. one for dental problems (toothache), and one for wound care. Many of the ethnobotanical accounts describe infusions (teas) of foliage or flowers used from 10 taxa, which would be one way of ingesting their pollen. Bark was main use of other two. For eleven genera, medicines were ingested, only one was applied externally. Ten of the genera are from zoophilous plants, so unlikely to be part of ambient pollen rain. Note that pollen identifications ar only to genera level. Many not be the case that all species in gsnus have medicinal value (e.g., Chenopodium - many types, only some useful medicinally). Noe that this aspect (pollen id) needs more work. Pollen concentration values for three genera (Anacardium, Borreria, and Terminalia) support inferences about possible medicinal use (e.g., high concentration values). Others are more problematic. Need to compare pollen concentration values from coprolites to enclosing matrix, to see if values are different or consistent with background pollen rain. Also, don't know about pollen productivity of native plants and how much pollen might be in medicines prepared from them. Also need to look at many more coprolites to get better idea of variabiligy. Also need better knowledge of pollen types within each of these genera. However, results point the way to method of investigating medicinal plant use in the past. This paper expands upon Chaves and Reinhard (2003). (29/11/2007).

Cooremans, B. 1999
An Unexpected Discovery in Medieval Bruges (Flanders, Belgium): Seeds of the Caper (Capparis spinosa L.). Environmental Archaeology 4:97-101.
Fifteen undamaged caper seeds recovered from one ditch and two brick cesspits, dating between 1200-1495 AD. Caper-bush, small shrub, originates in eastern Mediterranean, but has been cultivated for centuries. (Modern capers are the flower buds). Besides use as a condiment, the plant was also valued for its medicinal properties. These medieval occurrences are more likely to represent imported materials than the presence of the plant growing locally. Bruges was an important trading centre at the time. Indications are that the localities where the seeds were found represent wealthier districts, which would be consistent with the use of (presumably expensive) imported foodstuffs.

Cowan, R. A. 1967
Lake-Margin Ecological Exploitation in the Great Basin as Demonstrated by an Analysis of Coprolites from Lovelock Cave, Nevada. University of California Archaeology Survey Reports 70:21- 36. Papers in Great Basin Archaeology, vol. 70.

Cressman, L. S. 1966
Man in Association with Extinct Fauna in the Great Basin. American Antiquity 31:866-867.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Appears in "Fact and Comments" section. Draws attention to Paisley Five-Mile Point Cave No. 3, east shore of summer lake, south-central Oregon. Does not explicitly mention dung.

Cummings, L. S. 1994
Anasazi Diet: Variety in the Hoy House and Lion House Coprolite Record and Nutritional Analysis. In Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, edited by K. D. Sobolik, pp. 134-150. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
Sites are in Colorado. Examined material (both plant and faunal) recovered from coprolites for implications about diet and nutritional status. Concludes that population may have suffered from seasonal deficiency of Vitamin C and iron. Some supporting skeletal evidence from other sites for iron deficiency. Generally, coprolite analyses show potential for adequate nutrition. (09/03/2002).

Dean, G. W. 2006
The Science of Coprolite Analysis: The View from Hinds Cave. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237:67- 79.
AEU SCI QE 500 P15 DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.11.029 Reports on and extends work done in 1978 on 100 human coprolites recovered in 1975 from Hinds Cave, a dry rockshelter site in southwest Texas. Level dated around 5600 - 5700 C14 yr BP. Original pollen samples were not spiked. Added a spike to residues and recounted samples with spike to determine pollen concentration. Did this for 7 of the original samples. Data re-analyzed using the perspective provided by a set of modern experimental samples - 82 samples - recording pollen excreted by human volunteer. Volunteer deliberately ingested pollen-rich material (broccoli, mesquite, strawberry, and grape). Paper presents data from 20 of these samples from which pollen concentration data were derived. Analysis suggests that numbers of pollen grains cannot be used to distinguish accidental from deliberate ingestion and that pollen percentage data can be misleading (mainly because of closure on the percentage values and the influence of other pollen type (or lack thereof) on the values). Hinds Cave coprolites were also analyzed for their macrofossil and other material content (including small mammal bones). Some studies use a 100,000 pollen grains/gm as a "threshold" for deliberate ingestion of specific plant foods. But many pollen types in the fossil samples, even though present in lower concentrations, are of non-anemophilous types and so are likely the result of deliberate ingestion. Work does not help to specify how many coprolites need to be examined in order to get a dietary snapshot of the population. (24/05/2008).

De Clercq, W., D. Caluwé, B. Cooremans, and F. De Buyser (and Koen De Groote, Koen Deforce, Anton Ervynck, An Lentacker, Steven Mortier, Pedro Pype, Stephane Vandenberghe, Wim Van Neer and Hilde Wouters) 2007
Living in Times of War: Waste of c. 1600 From Two Garderobe Chutes in the Castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (Belgium). Post-Medieval Archaeology 41(1):1-63.
DOI: 10.1179/174581307X236201 Castle is located 15 km west of Bruges. Middelburg was a "new town" founded in 1448. By about 1600, due to the fortunes of war, the town and the castle were severely damaged, with the castle virtually ruined by 1750. The two chutes excavated and whose contents are described in this paper were likely filled in by about 1604. Paper briefly describes the excavations and then various aspects of, especially, material culture including: pottery (pp. 7-20), glassware (pp. 20- 28), windowglass (pp.28-29), building materials (pp. 29-30), coins and jettons [metal token or counter] (p. 30), metal objects (pp. 30-33) and lead shot (p.33). Also describes biotic remains including faunal remains (pp. 33-39), fruits and seeds (pp. 39-47), pollen (pp. 47-51), and charcoal (p. 51). Faunal remains include domesticates (cattle, pig, sheep/goat, cat and dog), birds (both wild and domesticates, including fowl, waterfowl and gamebirds), wild mammals, amphibians and various molluscs (freshwater and land snails, and marine molluscs, especially mussels). Large number of fish remains too, both marine and freshwater, and eel remains. Shows consumption patterns for the, predominantly military, castle inhabitants. Castle was continually being re-garrisoned by troops as it was captured and re-taken by various sides in the on-going wars. Plant remains included five cereals (oats, wheat, rye, barley, and buckwheat). Little evidence of pulses, although peas and lentils were identified. Some remains of herbs and spices. Fruit stones of various types are well represented (probably due to preservation potential, i.e., robustness) and include wild fruits (blackberry and elder) as well as garden and orchard fruits. Some evidence of oil seeds and wild plants, mainly, as expected, weed species. Nut remains (such as walnuts and hazelnuts) are abundant. Some foods likely luxury or elite foods, otherwise looks similar to other cesspit fills. Pollen analysis shows faecal origin, and includes pollen of food plants and occurrence of intestinal parasites (Trichuris and Ascaris eggs found). Chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium) pollen found in pollen but not in macros; may have been a kitchen herb. Algal remains (especially Pediastrum) show that moat water, at the chute outflow, was polluted and productive for algae. Chutes likely used as latrines as well as for garbage disposal. Artifacts date the fill between late 16th to early 17th century (likely some time between 1578 and 1609). Luxury items in fill (e.g., glassware) shows probable high social status of castle occupants (miliary officers perhaps). Most food items likely obtained locally, with a few exotic items. (29/03/2008).

Deforce, K. 2006
The Historical Use of Ladanum: Palynological Evidence from 15th and 16th Century Cesspits in Northern Belgium. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 15:145-148.
DOI: 10.1007/s00334-005-0021-y Found pollen of Cistus ladanifer type in pollen preparations from four cesspits from two late medieval sites in Flanders, northern Belgium. Neither site yielded macrobotanical remains of this taxon. Fround pollen from other economic or useful plants too. Cistus ladanifer and some other Cistus species are the source of an aromatic resin called Ladanum, which has long been used in perfumery and for medicinal purposes. Resin likely contained abundant pollen because of collection methods. Possibly used in the latrines as a medieval "air freshener." (22/12/2007).

Deslauriers, H. 1984
The Dauphine Officer Latrines, Artillery Park, Quebec City: Summary of Findings. Research Bulletin No. 229. Parks Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 34 pp.
AEU SCI Circumpolar Library POLAR 05 R432 No. 209-230 Latrine consisted of masonry structure with probable drain opening at base. Ceramic objects suggest deposits span most of early-mid 19th century. Officers from Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were billetted here. Macroremains analyses summarized (pp. 5-6). Newspaper dates the analyzed material to around June 1853. Seeds comprising 2000 specimens from 8 taxa identified: strawberry seeds comprised 92% of identifiable seeds, with raspberry and blueberry (all available in summer). Other remains include lemon, wild anise, pine needles and some small animal bones.

Dickson, C. 1996
Food, Medicinal and Other Plants from the 15th Century Drains of Paisley Abbey, Scotland. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 5:25-31.
River water was used to flush the drains; hence remains include those from riverine environments as well as plants used in Abbey buildings. 140 plant taxa identified. Remains of several probable medicinal plant remains identified: Chelidonium majus [celandine]; Papaver somniferum [opium poppy]; Euphorbia lathyris; Conium maculatum [poison hemlock]; Rumex pseudoalpinus; and possibly Armoracia, perhaps Armoracia rusticana [horseradish]. It is possible that these were grown in the monastic gardens. Food plant remains include: Allium [leek or onion]; Avena strigosa [black oats]; Triticum/Secale type bran fragments; Malus domestica [apple]; Prunus domestica ssp. insititia [damson]; Juglans regia [walnut]; Ficus carica [figs], a luxury item, probably imported as dried fruit; Barbarea vulgaris [winter cress], perhaps used as a salad herb. Other imported foodstuffs included Myristica fragrans [mace]. Also found remains of a yellow dye plant (Reseda luteola). Also found remains of wild plants, principally berries (Rubus fruticosa [blackberry], Rubus idaeus [raspberry], Sorbus acuparia [rowan], and Vaccinium myrtillus [bilberry]) and hazelnuts (Corylus); other wild plant remains include several taxa that were used in herbal medicine. Assemblage also included animal bones, indicating diet with abundant meat (beef, pork, lamb or kid), fish bones, and shellfish remains. Despite the remoteness of this location, the monks (or some of the monastery occupants) had access to luxury and imported items, probably brought in through east coast ports (e.g., Leith).

Dickson, J. 1997
The Moss from the Tyrolean Iceman's Colon. Journal of Bryology 19:449-451.
Samples recovered from colon (studied by K. Oeggl) contained einkorn (Tritium monococcum) and eggs of whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and some moss fragments. The moss is identified as Neckera complanata. This moss is terrestrial, found on rocks and tree trunks, in woodlands of low to moderate altitudes, pointing to an origin to the south (northern Italy). Moss leaf probably present due to accidental ingestion.

Dickson, J. H., and D. W. Brough 1989
Biological Studies of a Pictish Midden. Archäobotanik. Dissertationes Botanicae 133:155- 166.
Remains date to 7th century AD, from Dundurn, Perthshire, Scotland. Sample (DN 426) recovered from lower levels associated with Phase 2 of site's development. Macroremains dominated by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). Also hazelnut (Corylus avellana) fragments. Fifteen species of moss identified. Low levels of coprosterols were detected. Highest values associated with a mass of 24 fruit stones of wild cherry (Prunus avium), probably a coprolite. Remains probably represent a midden into which domestic refuse (bracken used e.g. for flooring) was dumped; not a cesspit.

Dickson, J. H., W. Hofbauer, W. Kofler, K. Oeggl, and J. Platzgummer 2005
How To Find the Bogmoss, Sphagnum imbricatum s.l., in South Tyrol, Italy: Microscopically Examine the Iceman's Colon Contents. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 14:207-210.
DOI: 10.1007/s00334-005-0086-7 Sphagnum imbricatum is an aggregate of three taxa. Few localities in Switzerland, Bavaria, Austria and Italy where it (actually Sphagnum affine) is found and none in South Tyrol. Where found, it is rare. Found a small (ca. 30 cell) fragment of a branch leaf of Sphagnum imbricatum in pollen residue sample from Iceman's colon. Taxon has not been recorded from modern bryophyte flora of the Iceman site or the surrounding area. May possibly have grow in Vinschgau valley, at lower elevation and further south. Valley was formerly wetland in some areas, now drained for orchards. Need sediment core and examination of macros to tell for sure. Not clear how it got into the Iceman's system but possibly by drinking water from a mire. Climate conditions at the time (ca. 5300 yr BP) may have been somewhat cooler and wetter, promoting mire development. (22/12/2007).

Dickson, J. H., K. Oeggl, T. G. Holden, L. L. Handley, T. C. O'Connell, and T. Preston 2000
The Omnivorous Tyrolean Iceman: Colon Contents (Meat, Cereals, Pollen, Moss and Whipworm) and Stable Isotope Analyses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Series B 355(29th December):1843-1849.
Written to refute conclusions of other studies (which were based on isotopic composition of hair samples) that the diet of the Iceman was primarily vegetarian. This paper describes the remains recovered from the colon contents, which include meat remains, bran, cereal, plant remains, Trichuris (whipworm) eggs, and also pollen. Pollen includes that from hophornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia) and hazel (Corylus avellana). It is possible that these were ingested through drinking water, and implies a spring/early summer time of death rather than autumn as implied by previous work.

Dittmar, K., and W. R. Teegen 2003
The Presence of Fasciola hepatica (Liver-fluke) in Humans and Cattle from a 4,500 Year Old Archaeological Site in the Saale-Unstrut Valley, Germany. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):141- 143.
Liver-fluke (Fasciola) rarely reported from European archaeological sites in contrast to other internal parasites. Looked at soil samples from pelvic area of one human burial and one cow burial at a site called Karsdorf 9. Both human and cow samples contained eggs of Fasciola hepatica and Capillaria sp. Fasciola is a trematode parasite of sheep and cattle. Intermediate host is usually a wetland snail, Lymnaea trunculata. Humans get the infection by eating watercress (Nasturtium officinale), with the parasite cysts on the leaves. Found Lymnaea sp. shells at the site too. Control samples (not from burials) did not yield eggs. So presence not from postburial contamination. Capillaria usually associated with rodents and so possibly a postburial contaminant. (25/05/2008).

Dusseau, E. M., and R. J. Porter 1974
The Search for Animal Parasites in Paleofeces from Upper Salts Cave. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 59. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 7 of the volume. Looked at 13 palaeofecal specimens from around survey station K31. All negative except for one which yielded nematode larvae, which could not confidently be identified to taxon. (18/Aug/2011).

Ewart, G., and F. Baker 1998
Carrick Castle: Symbol and Source of Campbell Power in South Argyll from the 14th to the 17th Century. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 128:937-1016.
A report mainly focussing on excavations in the castle basement carried out in conjunction with restoration work, which showed that 2 m of stratified deposits were preserved spanning the 13th to 17th centuries. A rock-cut pit was thought to have functioned first as a water cistern and later as a cesspit (mid 1500s to mid 1600s), associated with a prison room. Pit contained waterlogged deposits and refuse. Faunal remains found in pit, mainly from cattle. C.L.M. Warsop and P. Skidmore identified insects from the pit, mainly beetle remains and fly puparia. Included large numbers of a spider beetle (Tipnus unicolour), consistent with use as a cesspit. Fly fauna suggests carrion was present but also faecal material. Seed and plant remains in pit fill, identified by R. Pelling, include Rubus spp. seeds, and large amounts of fronds of bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), perhaps used as floor covering or from stable litter, also other weedy ruderal plant remains. Found one grape (Vitis vinifera) pip, significant because this is a rare find in Scottish sites, perhaps indicative of high status of castle residents. Most of report consists of description of material culture remains, including pottery, metal wares, cannonballs and military materials, stone objects, glass fragments, wood and wooden artifacts, and leather. Includes discuss of history of the site and its significance in regional dynastic politics. (13/04/2009) .

Farrell, N. 1988
Chapter 10: Analysis of Human Coprolites from CA-RIV-1179 and CA-RIV-2827. In Archaeological Investigations at CA-RIV-1179, CA-RIV-2823, and CA-RIV-2827, La Quinta, Riverside County, California, edited by M. Q. Sutton and P. J. Wilke, pp. 129-142. Archives of California Prehistory, Number 20. Coyote Press, Salinas, California, USA.
Human coprolites, 128 specimens, some fragmentary, were recovered from CA-RIV-1179. Chapter reports on analysis of 30 of them. Also included 3 human coprolites from CA- RIV-2827. Most abundant plant material was cattail (Typha spp.) in 21 samples from CA-RIV-1179, especially anthers. Cattail pollen may have been being consumed, as is reported in the ethnographic literature. Most other seed types were present in only trace amounts in a few specimens. Considerable amounts of fish remains were found. Fish bone (not all identifiable) was found in all 30 specimens from CA-RIV-1179. Most common taxon was Colorado River bonytail chub (Gila elegans) in 12 specimens from CA-RIV-1179. Some specimens also yielded mammal, tortoise, and reptile bone fragments. Very few food items apparently consumed. May indicate that sites were seasonal camps. (13/07/2006) .

Faulkner, C. T. 1991
Prehistoric Diet and Parasite Infection in Tennessee: Evidence from the Analysis of Desiccated Human Paleofeces. American Antiquity 56(4):687-700.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Eight coprolites recovered from Big Bone Cave, Tennessee. Radiocarbon dates suggest that these are from the late Early Woodland period, around 2200 yr BP. These may be coeval with those from Mammoth Cave system, which also shows early mining. Paper summarises the processing methods used (pp. 688-690). Recovered sumpweed (Iva annua) achenes in all samples. Size suggests domesticated variety. Chenopodium seeds in all samples. These are referred to the domesticate taxon Chenopodium berlandieri ssp. jonesianum. Three contained remains of domesticated form of sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Erect knotweed (Polygonum erectum) also in three specimens. Other plant remains include seeds of hickory (Carya), Panicum dichotomiflorum (grass), Rhus (sumac), Viburnum prunifolium (black haw), and Cerastium (chickweed). Five specimens contained pinworm eggs (Enterobius vermicularis), two contained eggs of roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides). Possibly also eggs from hookworm (Strongylida), but less certain identification. Cysts perhaps of Giardia intestinalis found in one specimen. Data show evidence for horticultural activity and subsistence. Very little evidence for meat consumption, but with proportion of wild, gathered, foods. results show similarities to those from Salts and Mammoth Caves. Poor sanitation habits indicated by internal parasites, especially roundworm and perhaps hookworm. Possibly a sedentary or semi-sedentary population. Giardiasis is derived from contaminated drinking water. This is the earliest evidence of this organism in the New World. (01/08/2005).

Faulkner, C. T., S. E. Cowie, P. E. Martin, S. R. Martin, C. S. Mayes, and S. Patton 2000
Archaeological Evidence of Parasitic Infection from the 19th Century Company Town of Fayette, Michigan. The Journal of Parasitology 86(4):846-849.
AEU SCI QL 757 J86 Town occupied 1867-1891, with a maximum of 500 inhabitants. Examined samples from privies associated with different socio-economic class areas in the town: the Superintendent's house (SH), skilled workers' housing (SW), and unskilled workers' neighbourhood (UW). The former two had formal well-constructed privies; the UW lived in multifamily dwellings with poor sanitation and no well-constructed privies. Found Trichuris trichiura (human whipworm) eggs in two SW samples. Samples from SH and UW did not yield parasite remains. Consider that the results show that probably most inhabitants were potentially exposed to parasites, and infection may have been common. Fact than none were found in UW samples probably more likely a result of poor preservation conditions than absence of infection. Reviews implications of whipworm infection for human health, noting that it is associated with poor sanitation and poor personal hygiene. (31/03/2002).

Faulkner, C. T., S. Patton, and S. S. Johnson 1989
Prehistoric Parasitism in Tennessee: Evidence from the Analysis of Desiccated Fecal Material Collected from Big Bone Cave, Van Buren County, Tennessee. The Journal of Parasitology 75:461-463.
AEU SCI QL 757 J86 Examined eight faecal specimens. Associated C14 dated material suggests an age of 2177 ± 145 yr BP. Contained macrobotanical remains of marshelder (Iva annua) and sunflower (Helianthus anuus). Also retrieved weevil larvae (subfamily Apioninae) and fleas (tribe Phalacropsyllini). Recovered eggs of Enterobius vermicularis from 5 specimens, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides from 2 specimens, plus other less well-securely identified types. One specimen contained protozoan cysts of Giardia; identification confirmed by additional testing. First report of this taxon in New World palaeofaeces.

Follett, W. I. 1970
Fish Remains from Human Coprolites and Midden Deposits Obtained During 1968 and 1969 at Lovelock Cave, Churchill County, Nevada. In Archaeology and the Prehistoric Great Basin Lacustrine Subsistence Regime as Seen from Lovelock Cave, Nevada, edited by R. F. Heizer and L. K. Napton, pp. 163-175. Contributions of the University California Archaeology Research Facility No 10.
AEU HSS E78 G65 H47

Fonner, R. L. 1957
Appendix B, c: Mammal Feces from Juke Box Cave. In Danger Cave. Reprinted 1999, edited by J. D. Jennings, pp. 304. University of Utah, Anthropological Papers Number 27. Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology No 14. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
AEU HSS E51 U88 No 27 Describes contents of 10 coprolite samples, chosen as being most likely of human origin. All contain seeds of Allenrolfea occidentalis [pickleweed], with other material (some plant, some faunal). Notes that most of the pickleweed seeds may have been ground. (31/07/2005).

Fortin, C. 1990
Seeds of History. In Under the Boardwalk in Québec City: Archaeology in the Courtyard and Gardens of the Château Saint-Louis, edited by P. Beaudet, pp. 157-165. Guernica Editions Inc., Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Notes that since the 1750s at least, various Governors of the Chateau experimented with importing plants from Europe (including fruit trees). Privy deposits accumulated 1815 - 1854. Macro remains recovered included 60 species (half are edible plants). Very abundant raspberry seeds (Rubus idaeus) (over 87% of identified seeds), with other fruits (figs, strawberries, grapes, and bird-cherry). Very low proportion (0.14%) of non-edible plant sees. Assemblage appeared uniform throughout deposit. Over 92% of seeds were from edible wild fruits. Some larger fragments (nut shells, plum stones) probably from kitchen waste, so privy may have been used as a general disposal site. Raspberries may have been purchased through local market rather than directly gathered. Only pepper and perhaps figs suggest use of imports. A good plain-language article, with some useful background on macro analysis. An excellent introductory article. (03/05/2002).

Fry, G. F. 1970
Appendix III: Preliminary Analysis of the Hogup Cave Coprolites. In Hogup Cave. xiii + 286 pp. Reprinted in 1999, edited by C. M. Aikens, pp. 247-250. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 93. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Twenty seven coprolites, all thought to be of human origin, were examined. Three temporal groups: Group 1 - older than 6000 yr BP, Group 2 - between about 4600 - 3200 yr BP, and Group 3 - late prehistoric, Fremont complex and Shoshoni complex. Abundant plant food remains recovered including Allenrolfea occidentalis (pickleweed) seeds, saltbush fibre (Atriplex confertifolia), sage (Artemisia sp.) fibre, Opuntia sp. (prickly pear) epidermis and spines, and some hair identified as from Antelope (Antilocapra). Small amount of grass seed and one occurrence of maize (Zea) in Fremont specimens. General decline of chenopod (Allenrolfea) seed with time. plant is common on salt flats near site today and much of the vegetation debris in the cave is from this taxon. one sample each from Group 1 and III contained hackberry (Celtis) seeds. Seeds show evidence of milling, also accounts for abundance of grit in the specimens. Also examined specimens for endoparasites. Found eggs of Acanthocephala (thorny-headed worm) in Group 1. Not clear if this was an actual infestation of from eating infected animals (such as rodents), may be an example of false parasitism. A few coprolites from all three groups contained eggs of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis). (30/07/2005).

Fry, G. F. 1974
Ovum and Parasite Examination of Salts Cave Human Paleofeces. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 61. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 8 of the volume. Looked at 8 specimens from the vicinity of survey station K31. One sample contained ova of Ascaris, possibly Ascaris lumbicoides (roundworm). (18/Aug/2011).

Fry, G. F. 1977
Analysis of Prehistoric Coprolites from Utah. Edited by J. Jennings and L. S. Sweeney. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 97. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA xi + 45 pp.
AEU HSS E 51 USS No 097 Two of the sites discussed are in NW Utah, west and north of the Great Salt Lake (Danger Cave and Hogup Cave). The third locality is Glen Canyon along the Colorado River, in SE Utah. These are rock shelter sites, and 15 are included in this study. Glen Canyon sites are mostly Fremont and Anasazi (around 2000 yr BP to 700 yr BP). All coprolites examined are thought to be of human origin. Report includes description of methods used for rehydration (using trisodium phosphate solution), screening and counting (pp. 7-9) for diet studies and a procedure for extracting parasites. Some coprolites were subsampled for pollen; these are the samples reported by Kelso (1970).
     Results from Hogup and Danger Caves show essentially similar subsistence for millennia. Main component is chenopod seed (Allenrolfea occidentalis, pickleweed). Fremont and Shoshoni samples show slight increased utilisation of Gramineae seed. Opuntia remains are also common throughout. Usually the pads would have been eaten, with the spines singed off first. Compares results with ethnohistoric evidence from the area. Coprolites show evidence that small mammals were eaten and finely divided plant material suggests that stomach contents of large herbivores were also consumed (in Fremont samples). Grit shows that seeds were probably ground before being consumed.
     Glen Canyon samples divided into two groups: Fremont and Anasazi. Twenty-four plant taxa were identified. Fremont samples yielded 16 taxa, 7 did not occur in Anasazi samples. Anasazi samples yielded 18 taxa, 9 of which were not in Fremont samples. Both sets contained Cucurbita (squash), Zea (maize) and Opuntia (prickly pear) remains. Zea is the major component in most Anasazi coprolites. Compared with Hopi ethnohistoric data; many of the same plants are present. However, coprolites contain seeds of plants not reported used by Hopi. These are Celtis (hackberry), Gossypium (cotton), Lepidium (pepper grass), Scirpus (bulrush), and Polygonum (knotweed). Beans (Phaseolus) were a major food source for the Hopi but not recorded from Glen Canyon materials. Pollen data from Hogup and Danger Caves dominated by Cheno-Ams. Other pollen data are consistent with macros. Glen Canyon coprolite pollen by Martin and Sharrock (1964) and Callen and Martin (1969). Show abundance of Cleome (beeweed), Zea (maize), Cucurbita (squash), and Opuntia (prickly pear) types. Cleome is not found in macros.
     Ten coprolites contain eggs of Acanthocephala, probably Monoliformis clarki. Its primary host is rodents; its intermediate host is camel cricket (Ceuthophilus utahensis). People are known to have eaten a variety of insects as food, and also small rodents. So probably parasitised as a by product of diet. Five coprolites contained eggs of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis). Danger Cave samples from lower levels record the oldest recorded human endoparasite association. Effect on human health probably minor; many people are infected and infection rates within a population can be very high. None of 146 coprolites contained eggs from tapeworm (superfamily Taenioidea). Also recovered some evidence of ectoparasites (louse - Pediculus humanus). Fry also reports on some chemical analysis of coprolites. Mostly the data show amounts of chemicals excreted were probably within normal expected ranges (given some dietary assumptions) except that sodium is present in high amounts. This is probably to be expected since the major dietary food source was from salt flat plants (pickleweed) and probably drinking water sources may also have been salty.
     Conclusion is that subsistence pattern in the area was maintained basically unchanged for around 10,000 years until incursion of Fremont and Shoshoni peoples. (01/08/2005).

Fry, G., and H. J. Hall 1975
Human Coprolites from Antelope House: Preliminary Analysis. The Kiva 41(1):87-96.
AEU PMC F 786 K62 Antelope House is an Anasazi Site in Canyon de Chelly, Arizona. Reports on 26 human coprolites from two rooms at Antelope House (Pueblo II, and Pueblo III levels). Identified 20 plant taxa, also hair, bone, and feather fragments indicating meat consumption. Feathers may be from wild turkey. Most seeds are from plants known to have been important dietary components (e.g., squash, cactus, amaranth, beans, etc.) Corn kernels, some with attached cob, are abundant; corn cobs probably roasted and eaten. Seven coprolites contained parasite eggs of Enterobius vermicularis (human pinworm). It is possible that most of the site's inhabitants were infected.

Fry, G. F., and J. G. Moore 1969
Enterobius vermicularis: 10,000 year old human infection. Science 166:1620.
AEU SCI Q 1 S41 Egg of Enterobius vermicularis (human pinworm) found in human coprolite from Danger Cave, Utah, dated at 7837±630 yr BC. [Note: all dates in this paper are given as yr BC. These are presumably based on C14 dates but no raw dates or lab numbers are given.] Authors state that this is the earliest such record of this parasite. Have examined 142 coprolites from Danger Cave and Hogup Cave. Pinworm eggs are also found in three levels (level 10 [650±100 yr BP], level 8 [1250±140 yr BC], and level 6 [4010±100 yr BC]) of Hogup Cave. Eight samples also contained thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephela) eggs. Data suggest that rate of infestation in DC and HC populations by pinworm was probably similar to that of modern populations.

Fugassa, M. H., N. H. Sardella, R. A. Guichón, G. M. Denegri, and A. Araújo 2008
Paleoparasitological Analysis Applied to Museum-curated Sacra from Meridional Patagonian Collections. Journal of Archaeological Science 35:1408-1411.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2007.10.006 Bones in museums are usually cleaned as part of curation process. Wanted to test whether parasite eggs would survive this process. Looked at six sacra from three sites in southeast Argentina; found some sediment in sacral formen. Two specimens from two sites in Tierra del Fuega yielded Capillaria sp. eggs. One of the samples from other site yielded Ascaris sp. eggs. Dates of the skeletal remains history to 850 yr BP. Shows that data can be recovered even from cleaned museum specimens. (20/11/2008).

Gardner, P. S. 1987
New Evidence Concerning the Chronology and Paleoethnobotany of Salts Cave, Kentucky. American Antiquity 52(2):358-367.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Only mentions analysis of coprolite material (by Yarnell) incidentally, as comparison to the study reported here, which is an examination of plant remains from a 1 x 1 m excavated unit in the Vestibule area of Salts Cave. (23/12/2007).

Geyer, P. S., T. S. Larson, and L. Stroik 2003
University of San Diego Palynological Investigation of the Dos Cabezas Giants. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 13:275- 282.
DOI: 10.1002/oa.685 Site of Dos Cabezas is on north coast of Peru and belongs to Moche culture. Pollen analysis of material recovered from pelvic girdle areas of 3 burials: an adult male and two juveniles. Male was of "unusually tall stature," so presumably this is where the designation of "giants" comes from. Authors assume that material contains pollen from food in digestive tract at time of death. Although talks of coprolites, not clear that any coprolites (strictly would be cololites since they would have still been in the digestive tract) were identified. Pollen work was done by undergrad students. [The preparation technique described is odd. For example, they describe using hot water from a water bath to rinse samples as part of the NaOH treatment. It is not clear why, and this seems an obvious potential source of contamination.] No reference material available. Identifications made by comparison with photos in publications; no supporting information is given for the taxonomic assignments. Made a 200 grain count on each sample. Notable that most identifications are given to species level. Report 22 taxa in total, 25 from male burial, 21 from one juvenile, and 27 from the other. Regarded anything present in more than 2% abundance (i.e., 4 grains) as statistically significant. For male, 7 taxa were present in statistically significant amounts, of which 3 were from food plants. Food (especially Zea) pollen is dominant in samples from juvenils. Notes the presence of pollens from plants known to have been used as poisons. Speculates that these plants may have been administered to hasten death. Suggests that differences in pollen assemblage composition between adult and juveniles may relate to different foods ingested as an indicator of social status. Finds that some "background" pollen types, in particular sedge, may be from textiles or rope used to wrap the body of the adult. Notes the possibility of contamination from tomb or groundwater, but indicates that this is a useful pilot study. This work has been severely criticized on methodological, taxonomic, and interpretive grounds, see Reinhard et al. (2007). (23/03/2008).

Gilbert, M. T. P., D. L. Jenkins, A. Götherstrom, and N. Naveran (J. J. Sanchez, M. Hofreiter, P. F. Thomsen, J. Binladen, T. F. G. Higham, R. M. Yohe II, R. Parr, L. S. Cummings, and E. Willerslev) 2008
DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America. ScienceExpress Published online 3 April 2008 DOI: 10.1126/science.1154116. 4 pp.
Coprolites from Paisley 5 Mile Point Cave, south Oregon. Dry caves with well-preserved archaeological materials. Direct dating on coprolites: 12,300 C14 yr BP. Selected 14 coprolites from lowest level, thought to be human based on size and morphology. All tested positive for human mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA). Six yielded SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) from haplogroups A2 and B2, diagnostic for Aboriginal North Americans. European-type SNPs, also found, probably from contamination - eliminated these by analyzing DNA samples from all 55 people working on or visiting the site during excavation and lab crews. None of these people are source of mtDNA from haplogroups A and B. Tested for leaching of DNA from higher levels by looking at control sediment samples and wood rat (Neotoma lepida) and golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis) faunal remains (both taxa associated with the caves). Three coprolites also yielded canid DNA. Either canids eaten by humans or from later cave occupation by canids (urine). AMS dated camelid astragalus in association with 3 of the coprolites at 12,300 C14 yr BP date. AMS dated 5 coprolites from deepest layers: three yielded dates consistent with camelid date. [But two were considerably younger, one gave a date of ca. 1,300 C14 yr BP. Difficult to see how this can be accounted for if it was from the deepest layer, unless there was post-depositional disturbance and mixing.] No Clovis artifacts from caves. Calibrated ages for Clovis around 13,000 yr BP; coprolite ages are a thousand years earlier (14,000 yr BP). [Very interesting paper with huge implications for human history in North America. But these dates are still all post-last glaciation, so do not support a mid-Wisconsinan human incursion scenario. Unfortunately, the paper is only available online through a subscription-restricted site.] (30/06/2008).

Greig, J. 1981
The Investigation of a Medieval Barrel-Latrine from Worcester. Journal of Archaeological Science 8:265-282.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 A classic and oft-cited paper. Barrel, thought to date from the late medieval interval, contained four layers of organic matter. Report deals primarily with two: Layer 1, black organic material with bones and fruit stones, and Layer 2, the majority of the barrel fill, cohesive mass with cloth and plant and animal remains. Examined insect remains, plant remains (pollen and seeds), parasite remains, and faunal remains. Beetle remains from Layer 1 (examined by P. J. Osborne) yielded 30 taxa, dominated by two species, Tipnus unicolor and Mycetaea hirta). Assemblage is consistent with occurrence of human faecal material. Some beetle taxa indicate the presence of decaying plant material. Sixty-seven seed taxa identified in Layers 1 and 2. Seeds are abundant. Notably abundant are seeds of fig (Ficus carica) and strawberry (Fragaria cf. vesca). Deposit also yielded fruit stones, e.g., of sloe (Prunus spinosa) and cherry (Prunus cf. cerasus) which suggests the use of the barrel for waste disposal because these large remains are unlikely to be in faecal material. Seed taxa represent many habitats: ruderal, grasslands, cultivated lands, heathland, woodland, wetlands, and hedgebanks. Layers also contained large amounts of finely-comminuted bran. Parasite ova from Ascaris and Trichuris found. Faunal remains (identified by R. T. Jones) are all from chicken (Gallus) again suggesting barrel's use for waste disposal. Fish remains (identified by A. K. G. Jones) include eel (Anguilla anguilla) and one vertebral centrum from herring (Clupea harengus). The latter is marine and hence must have been brought to the site from afield. Layer 2 contained cloth remains, perhaps tailor's offcuts, possibly used for hygiene, as likely was the moss in this layer too. Some plant remains may have been remnants of hay/straw and other herbs used for floor covering and then discarded. Remains show use of preserved and imported foodstuffs (e.g., grapes and figs), despite the predominance of local foodstuffs. Interesting paper with some interesting reconstructions (graphics). (24/05/2009).

Gremillion, K. 2002
Archaeobotany of Old Mobile. Historical Archaeology 36(1):117-128.
AEU HSS E 11 S67 Looking at European colonizers' adaptations to food resources of a new land. Old Mobile as a frontier community. Old Mobile was occupied for ten years (1702-1711) in early eighteenth century by colonists from France. Some samples were derived from midden deposits within four structures. One structure was a blacksmith shop, two others were multiethnic households. [It is not stated if these middens consist of barn refuse (i.e., dung) or just general household rubbish]. Most plant remains are of maize (Zea mays) or fava bean (Vicia fava). Beans widely used in Mediterranean and Middle East and seem to have been introduced early into southeastern North America. Possibly also remains of field pea (Pisum sativa). Also found remains of New World crop, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Possible that the maize consumed was imported (e.g., from Spanish colonies), rather than grown locally. Other plant remains include seeds of local wild fruits, such as sumac (Rhus sp.), plum (Prunus sp.), persimmon (Diospyros virginia), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), and grape (Vitis sp.). Exotic plant remains include peach (Prunus persica) which was early grown in Spanish mission gardens. Colonists' diet included a large proportion of imported foods, but also some foods probably obtained by exchange with local indigenous population. Suggests that Aboriginal women, when managing households, were primary agents of acculturisation to indigenous foods. (01/08/2005).

Gremillion, K. J. 1994
Evidence of Plant Domestication from Kentucky Caves and Rockshelters. In Agricultural Origins and Development in the Midcontinent, edited by W. Green, pp. 87-103. Report 19. Office of the State Archaeologist, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Brief review and summary of work at eight sites (Mammoth Cave, Salts Cave, Newt Kash Shelter, Cloudsplitter Shelter, Haystack Shelter, Thor's Hammer Shelter, Rogers Shelter, and Cold Oak Shelter) as it pertains to plant domestication. Dates from sites span about 4000 to 1200 C14 yr BP. Coprolites (paleofeces) found at many sites. Plant remains show changes indicative of husbandry and domestication, e.g., for chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), sumpweed (Iva annua), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). These three grain crops were domesticated in eastern North America. Two other plants may have been domesticated also: pepo gourd or squash (Cucurbita pepo) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) - the latter probably mainly for its use as containers not so much as a food plant. Good preservation of remains at these sites, allowing morphological detail on seeds to be examined. (11/11/2007).

Gremillion, K. J. 1996
Early Agricultural Diet in Eastern North America: Evidence from Two Kentucky Rockshelters. American Antiquity 61:520-536.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Discusses the analysis of coprolite samples found in museum collections from Newt Kash (1 specimen) and Hooton Hollow (3 specimens) rockshelters. C14 dated to around 3000 - 3100 yr BP. All presumed to be of human origin. Macroremains and pollen examined. One specimen from Newt Kash contained a pinworm egg (Enterobius vermicularis). Samples yielded fragmentary seed and fruit remains, especially outer seed coats, mostly from presumed crops. Among these are: Chenopodium berlandieri (showing intermediate characteristics - in thickness of testa - between wild and domesticated forms); sunflower (Helianthus annuus), again probably a domesticated form; sumpweed (Iva annua), sizes indicate domesticated form; giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida), perhaps as a weed of cultivation rather than a crop; and hickory (Carya) nut shell. Crop remains are predominant in assemblage but not as much as at other sites. Some evidence for crop storage.

Hall, A. R., A. K. G. Jones, and H. K. Kenward 1983
Cereal Bran and Human Faecal Remains from Archaeological Deposits - Some Preliminary Observations. In Site, Environment and Economy, edited by B. Proudfoot, pp. 85-104. Symposia of the Association for Environmental Archaeology 3, British Archaeological Reports International Series 173. BAR (British Archaeological Reports), Oxford, England, UK,
AEU HSS CC 81 S62 Analysis of samples from two sites. First is a pit at 16 - 22 Coppergate, York (UK). Fill dated provisionally to 10th or 11th century AD. Mostly consisted of cereal bran, plus some other seeds and plant remains (non-cereal). Insect remains (beetles and bugs), assemblage typical of waterlogged urban deposits of early medieval times. Pollen mainly from Cerealia but poorly preserved. Also abundant whipworm (Trichuris) eggs. Similar pollen results obtained from a pit fill at The Bedern, York, dated to the 14th century. This also contained whipworm eggs. Cereal bran remains show importance of cereals in diet of medieval townsfolk. Paper also includes discussion of criteria for recognition of cereal bran in such deposits.

Han, E., S. Guk, J. Kim, H. Jeong, S. Kim, and J. Chai 2003
Detection of Parasite Eggs from Archaeological Excavations in the Republic of Korea. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):123- 126.
Republic of Korea = South Korea. Looked for parasites in 106 pit soil samples from two sites: Chilgok-gun, Taegu-city (dated about 700 - 950 AD) and Ulgin-gun, Kyungsangbuk- do (spanning three intervals between about 4000 yr BP and 1900 AD). Found helminth eggs in 10 samples: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Clonorchis sinensis, and eggs from 2 unknown trematodes. Soil samples thought to be from ancient privies. Not clear if these parasites are from humans, though this is likely. Results are consistent with parasite findings from similar studies elsewhere, including other sites in east Asia and China. Inferred parasite loads are also consistent with studies of parasite occurrence in modern human populations in the region. (19/04/2008).

Heizer, R. F., and L. K. Napton 1969
Biological and Cultural Evidence from Prehistoric Human Coprolites: The Diet of Prehistoric Great Basin Indians Can Be Reconstructed from Desiccated Fecal Material. Science 165:563-568.
AEU SCI Q 1 S41 A review article that surveys the state of coprolite research, then concentrates on work at Lovelock Cave. Comments on lack of studies hitherto on dietary information offered by coprolites. Preservation especially good in dry conditions of US southwest and Great Basin. Reviews the history of excavation at Lovelock Cave. Occupation at cave began perhaps 5000 yr BP and continued until perhaps 1800 AD. Cave contains around 15 feet of deposits, capped by a layer of bat guano, 4 to 6 feet thick. Archaeological materials beneath this were found when commercial extraction of bat guano began in 1911. Loud (1912) and Loud and Harrington (1924) worked at the site. Some coprolites collected in 1950 and examined by Roust. Reports on new analyses of sets of coprolites collected from undisturbed context from the cave entrance (dated around 150 yr BP) and the interior (dated around 1200 yr BP). Besides plant material, coprolites contain fish remains (Gila [Siphateles] bicolor - tui chub, Catastomus tahoensis - Tahoe sucker, and Rhinichthys osculus robustus - Lahontan speckled dace), and hair from game (antelope and bighorn sheep) and small mammals (squirrels), and remains of coots, ducks, and waterfowl. "Entrance" coprolites contain about half (by weight) of Scirpus and Typha seeds. Also contained seeds of Mentzelia, Elymus, Sueda, Atriplex, and Panicum, and plant remains of Typha, Distichilis, Scirpus, Elymus, Sueda and Phragmites. Many coprolites consisted mostly of Typha pollen (suggest that it was baked before consumption). No evidence of endoparasites found. Cave occupants living on resources from lake margin/wetland in nearby valley/basin floor. Authors point out that a large collection of coprolites remains which could be used for further studies. (31/03/2002).

Hevly, R. H., R. E. Lelly, G. A. Anderson, and S. J. Olsen 1979
Comparative Effects of Climatic Change, Cultural Impact, and Volcanism in the Paleoecology of Flagstaff, Arizona, A.D. 900 - 1300. In Volcanic Activity and Human Ecology, edited by P. D. Sheets and D. K. Grayson, pp. 487-523. Academic Press, New York, USA.
In pp. 505 - 507 they have a discussion of "Fungal Spores, Human Parasite Eggs, and Disease," including some photos of various taxa. This discussion focuses on analysis of material from Elden Pueblo. They also include several other references to the study of parasite remains from North American sites: Samuels (1965), Fry and Moore (1969), Moore, Fry and Englert (1969). They mention that fungal spores and parasite eggs can be confused in palynological preparations, implying that some of the parasite eggs may be of the same general size as palynomorphs.

Hill, J. N., and R. H. Hevly 1968
Pollen at Broken K Pueblo: Some New Interpretations. American Antiquity 33(2):200-210.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Broken K Pueblo was occupied between 1150 and 1280 AD. Large site, consisting of about 100 rooms. Analyzed pollen samples from floors of 54 excavated rooms. One sample (from room 31-33) was a coprolite (whether human or animal is not stated, but rest of text makes it clear that it is assumed to be human origin). Coprolite yielded pollen from nine plant types: Zea (corn), Cucurbita (squash), Cleome (bee weed), Opuntia (prickly pear cactus), Cheno-Am (Chenopodiaceae and/or Amaranthaceae, the pollen is indistinguishable), Compositae (several types), Juniperus (juniper), Pinus (pine, thought to be from Pinus edulis, pinyon pine), and Gramineae (grass). Considers that this specimen is indicative of plant foods being eaten by pueblo's inhabitants. Most of paper deals with discussion of function and relative dating of various rooms, as indicated by pollen assemblages. (17/06/2006).

Hillman, G. 1986
Plant Foods in Ancient Diet: The Archaeological Role of Palaeofaeces in General and Lindow Man's Gut Contents in Particular. In Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog, edited by I. M. Stead, J. B. Bourke and D. Brothwell, pp. 105-115. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS DA 690 L68 L74 Notes four types of contexts in which palaeofaeces may be preserved: 1) desiccated specimens in caves, 2) in disaggregated form as in a cess pit, 3) charred fragments, 4) gut contents when bodies rapidly buried or mummified so decay is prevented. Provides a lengthy reference list of studies focussing on each type. For Lindow Man's gut contents, concludes that the material, which consists largely of an undifferentiated mass of apparently farinaceous material, probably represented a loaf or an unleavened flatbread eaten as his last meal. The macrobotanical evidence included chaff from barley (Hordeum) and from two types of wheat - spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum). Also found a few seeds, typical of agricultural field weeds. (09/10/2006, 25/07/2010).

Hogan, P. F. 1980
Appendix IX: The Analysis of Human Coprolites from Cowboy Cave. In Cowboy Cave, edited by J. D. Jennings, pp. 201-211. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 104. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
AEU HSS E51 U88 No 104 Most identifiable material consisted of seed fragments. Helianthus and Sporobolus common in all levels, except Vb (upper level) where Cheno-Ams dominate. Carex important in IIb but not in upper levels. Seasonal indicators suggest summer or late fall. Meat a small proportion of diet - some rabbit (Lagomorpha) and rodent (Rodentia) from bone and hair fragments. Staple foods seem to have been sunflower and dropseed. Sunflower seeds appear to have been eaten whole. Dropseed may have been ground and roasted. Cheno-Am (probably mostly Chenopodium) in upper levels appears to have been ground for consumption. Possibly this change represents a change in season of use since these taxa ripen later - possible related to harvesting of maize - dominant at 1900 yr level. But no corn remains identified in coprolites so perhaps this was harvested elsewhere. (03/08/2003).

Holden, T. G. 1986
Preliminary Report on the Detailed Analysis of the Macroscopic Remains from the Gut of Lindow Man. In Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog, edited by I. M. Stead, J. B. Bourke and D. Brothwell, pp. 116-125. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS DA 690 L68 L74 Follows up on work of Hillman (1986), by examining in more detail the very fine organic material from the gut contents. Looked at the bran remains in particular, examined the cell structure to identify to species. Wheat (Triticum) and barley (Hordeum) remains predominate. Also found remains that could indicate rye (Secale), although the author was not confident that these could clearly be distinguished from wheat remains, so put in a Triticum/Secale category. Found remains of oat (Avena) bran and some remains of brome (Bromus), likely inadvertantly gathered and processed with the other cereals. Also a few seeds, likely from agricultural weeds. (25/07/2010) .

Holden, T. G. 1995
The Last Meals of the Lindow Bog Men. In Bog Bodies: New Discoveries and New Perspectives, edited by R. C. Turner and R. G. Scaife, pp. 76-82. British Museum Press, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS GN 805 B64 Examines the plant and other residues in gut contents of two bog bodies (Lindow II and Lindow III). Cereal (bran of wheat/rye, barley chaff) and other plant remains identified (Lindow II). Lindow III yielded quantities of hazel nut fragments. Agrees with pollen evidence (in Scaife 1995). Both yielded weed seeds.

Horne, P., and J. A. Tuck 1996
Archaeoparasitology at a 17th Century Colonial Site in Newfoundland. The Journal of Parasitology 82(3):512-515.
AEU SCI QL 757 J86 First report from Canada of parasites from an archaeological site. Ferryland site, on the Avalon Peninsula. Colony founded by George Calvert in 1621. Cesspit, chamber for a privy, flushed by seawater at high tide via holes in sea wall. Despite this, organic remains accumulated, with distinct stratigraphy. Probably built in mid-1620s (oldest colonial privy so far examined in North America). Modified so that waste from nearby cobblestone floor (stable or barn) flowed into pit (perhaps with change of ownership in 1638). Dutch raid in 1673 led to destruction. Examined material from eight levels. Description of processing procedures to recover parasite ova. Found ova of four taxa: Trichuris, Ascaris, Taenia, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum. All infect man and other animals. Trichuris and Ascaris often found in Old World privy studies. Only one other report of Trichuris in pre-Columbian New World (Elden Pueblo, 1100 AD), plus three colonial sites (18th and 19th centuries). Tentative reports of Ascaris in three pre-Columbian instances, and two North American colonial sites. Taenia ova reported from five pre-Columbian North American sites. Ferryland site is first archaeological New World report of Dicrocoelium (liver fluke, infects domestic animals and humans).

Iñiguez, A. M., A. Araújo, L. F. Ferreira, and A. C. P. Vicente 2003
Analysis of Ancient DNA from Coprolites: A Perspective with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction Approach. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Supplement 1):63- 65.
Describes work done with 29 human coprolites (from Brazil and Chile) to extract and amplify aDNA. In previous work, 16 specimens had provided evidence of possible human parasites. Techniques (random amplified polymorphic PCR, or RAPD) were successful in recovering aDNA from all 29 specimens. Techniques can overcome problems due to DNA damage. (25/11/2007).

Iñiguez, A. M., K. J. Reinhard, A. Araújo, L. F. Ferreira, and A. C. P. Vincente 2003
Enterobius vermicularis: Ancient DNA from North and South American Human Coprolites. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):67- 69.
Analyzed DNA extracted from 24 coprolites from archaeologucal sites in Chile (spanning about 6000 yr BP to 1200 yr BP, with most from the later interval) and 3 from Antelope House, Arizona. All but one of the Chilean samples yielded human (mtDNA) DNA. Six samples showed both microscopic and DNA evidence of pinworm. Nine samples that showed microscopic evidence of pinworm did not show DNA evidence. And three samples showed DNA indications of pinworm but no microscopic evidence. Concludes that the approach appears promising. (25/03/2008).

Jennings, J. D. 1957
Danger Cave. Reprinted 1999. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 27. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
AEU HSS E 51 U88 Although focused on Danger Cave, the volume contains results from two other caves, Juke Box Cave and Raven Cave, and Appendix E contains a discussion of the artifacts (mainly stone tools) and excavations at Shaw Cave, Wyoming. Danger Cave and Juke Box Cave are in northwest Utah; Raven Cave is just over the border in Nevada. The sites are west of the Great Salt Lake, in the western edge of the Great Salt Lake Desert. All sites are close to the town of Wendover, Utah. These sites are within the Great Basin. Radiocarbon dates from Danger Cave span around 11,100 yr BP to around 1900 yr BP. Twelve C-14 dates were obtained, several of which were on sheep dung and several on wood. Danger Cave was the richest site and contained the most complete sequence and most detail. Considerable discussion of the difficulties of excavation in caves (especially dust and lack of light). Material culture remains are extensive and include stone tools and bone artifacts. More remarkable are the range of perishable material culture artifacts, made of material like wood, fibre, and sinew. These include remains of wooden page, a bow, a snare, arrows, darts, and fire drills. Also remains made from hide (including a moccasin), and cordage fibre made from Scirpus. At Danger Cave, a net bag made of Apocynum (Indian hemp) fibre was found in remarkable condition. Other kinds of woven materials (textiles or basketry) were also recovered from the site and several of these pieces, as illustrated in the report, appear to exhibit fine craftsmanship. Report includes several appendices focused on dung, including Appendix B, a (p. 302), Mammal Feces, by Charles C. Sperry, Appendix B, b (p. 303), Mammal Feces from Danger Cave, by Robert L. Fonner, and Appendix B, c (p. 304), Mammal Feces from Juke Box Cave, by Robert L. Fonner. These are itemised elsewhere in The Dung File. (30/07/2005) .

Jones, A. K. G. 1986
Parasitological Investigations on Lindow Man. In Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog, edited by I. M. Stead, J. B. Bourke, D. Williams and D. Brothwell, pp. 136-139. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS DA 690 L68 L74 Found abundant and well preserved eggs from human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and some ova from maw worm (Ascaris lumbricoides) in samples of gut contents from Lindow Man. Whipworm ova are especially abundant in all samples. Suggests that he may have been carrying a relatively high parasite load. (25/07/2010).

Kelso, G. 1970
Appendix IV: Hogup Cave: Comparative Pollen Analysis of Human Coprolites and Cave Fill. In Hogup Cave. xiii + 286 pp. Reprinted in 1999, edited by C. M. Aikens, pp. 251-262. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 93. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Results obtained from 37 coprolites of probable human origin. Samples span lower to upper site levels. Also examined samples from cave fill. All pollen spectra are dominated by Cheno-Am pollen. not surprisingly in view of its dominance in seeds and in plant material at the site. Grass pollen becomes more abundant in samples from upper fill levels. Correlates with shifts in subsistence to Bison as marked in faunal remains. Possible reflects some local environmental change. Amount of Cheno- Am pollen declines in coprolites in upper levels, while diversity and variety of other pollen types increases. Artemisia and Gramineae pollen more significant in coprolites in upper layers. Compared these results with examination of pollen spectra from 13 human coprolites from Danger Cave. These are also dominated by Cheno-Am pollen throughout. Also contain Artemisia, Gramineae and Sarcobatus pollen in considerable quantities. Pollen record from Hogup Cave agrees with the three-part interpretation of the archaeological record by Aikens. (30/07/2005).

Kenward, H., and F. Large 1998
Insects in Urban Waste Pits in Viking York: Another Kind of Seasonality. Environmental Archaeology 3:35-53.
Examining assemblages to explore whether season of formation of deposit or the length of time of exposure could be derived. Approached using models of community and death assemblages.

Krzywinski, K., S. Fjelldal, and E. Soltvedt 1983
Recent Palaeoethnobotanical Work at the Medieval Excavations at Bryggen, Bergen, Norway. In Site, Environment and Economy, edited by B. Proudfoot, pp. 145-169. International Series 173. BAR (British Archaeological Reports), Oxford, England, UK.
Review of sources of pollen in an urban context. Bergen has burned and been rebuilt several times. Fire layers preserve a "snapshot" of plants used at that time. Many types of material represented in fills. Latrine deposits span 11th to 15th centuries A.D. Presents results from latrine burnt about 1250 A.D. Large amount of moss, interpreted as used for person hygiene. Local species represented, probably from mountain slopes in area around town. Plant taxa include local berries (especially Vaccinium, Empetrum, and Fragaria), and fig (Ficus), also cereal remains, pollen from Vicia faba, and hazelnut shells.

Kuijper, W. J., and H. Turner 1992
Diet of a Roman Centurion at Alpen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands, the First Century AD. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 73:187-204.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Site is 30 km SW of Amsterdam. Wooden gutter (drains) from a small room. Interpreted as the latrine for the centurion's quarters. Looked at pollen and macros (seeds, animal remains) from five samples from various places in the structure. Pollen yielded assemblage from trees (alder, hazel, elm) and other weedy NAP types, probably representing regional vegetation. Food plants: cereal pollen (note that this is identified to species level, though it is not clear on what basis this was done), also bean (Vicia faba), Rosa, and prune (Prunus-type) pollen also from food plants. Also pollen from herbs: fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), caraway (Carum carvi), aniseed (Pimpinella anisum) and chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium). Nuts pollen includes beech (Fagus), hazel (Corylus), chestnut (Castanea), and walnut (Juglans). Wide range of seed types found including cereals, bean, and spices (coriander [Coriandrum sativum], dill [Anethum graveolens], and celery [Apium graveolens]) - all used as condiments. Also found remains of olives, figs, grapes, peach (Prunus persica) - this latter was a luxury item at the time, and not grown in Europe - and apple and pear seeds. Also remains of some wild plants (though not clear if these were foods). Animal remains include fish (mainly roach, bream, perch), typical of slow-moving lowland rivers, oyster and mussel shells (must have been brought inland from coast). Found ova from whipworm (Trichuris) and roundworm (Ascaris). Results (of seeds) agree with other northern Europe Roman sites. Showed that a wide range of food types was available including some luxury imported items. (14/04/2002).

Le Bailly, M., U. Leuzinger, H. Schlichtherle, and F. Bouchet 2007
"Crise économique" au Néolithique à la transition Pfÿn-Horgen (3400 BC): contribution de la paléoparasitologie. Anthropozoologica 42(2):175-185.
Paper is in French with English abstract. Looked at data from six sites, dated by dendrochronology or radiocarbon to between 3900 - 2900 BC (approx. 5900 - 4900 yr BP). All sites on or near lakeshores: four around Bodensee (or Lake Constance, a large lake in southern Germany, at the border of Germany, Switzerland and Austria) and two near Federsee (much smaller lake further north in southern Germany). Includes the site of Arbon Bleiche III, discussed elsewhere in The Dung File. Looked at coprolites or sediment samples (137 in total) containing faecal material. Anthropogenic origin of samples was confirmed by, for example, macrobotanical contents, such as Fragaria or Rubus seeds in high concentration. Recovered evidence (eggs) from ten different parasites, from three different parasite groups: Diphyllobothrium, Taenia, Fasciola, Paramphistomum, Dicrocoelium, Opistorchis, Trichuris, Capillaria (including Capillaria bovis, a parasite of large herbivores), and Dioctophyma. Some parasites (Diphyllobothrium, Fasciola, and Trichuris) are present throughout time interval and at all sites. Others are less common and are restricted to specific sites or time intervals. Maximum abundance and diversity of parasites seems to occur right at the transition between Pfÿn and Horgen cultural phases. Shows that populations likely suffered intestinal ailments and had health issues arising from parasite load. Conclude that preservation difference between sites don't account for variations in assemblages. Discount other taphonomic effects. Whether the transition from one cultural phase to another represents a cultural change in place or the arrival of a different population, the parasite evidence shows that there was a clear dietary change. Suggest that an "economic crisis" was brought on by climatic deterioration, detected in lake sediments, at this transition. Near famine conditions resulted in greater reliance on foods from hunting (e.g., deer) and fishing. Hence parasites associated with increased fish consumption (e.g., Diphyllobothrium and Capillaria) peak at this transition. (29/03/2008).

Lindsay, L. W. 1980
Appendix X: Pollen Analysis of Cowboy Cave Cultural Deposits. In Cowboy Cave, edited by J. D. Jennings, pp. 213-224. University of Utah Anthropological Papers Number 104. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
AEU HSS E51 U88 No 104 Analyzed matrix samples from cultural levels and eight [human] coprolites from layers IVc (3635±55 yr BP) and Vb (1890±65 BP). Pollen generally poorly preserved. IVc coprolites dominated by grass pollen, not significantly different to spectrum from matrix. Vb has grass, but also significant amounts of Juniperus and Cheno- Am pollen. These coprolites also contain pollen from economic plants (e.g., Zea). Appearance of corn is coincident evidence for subsistence shift. (03/08/2003).

Luciani, S., G. Fornaciari, O. Rickards, C. M. Labarga, and F. Rollo 2006
Molecular Characterization of a Pre-Columbian Mummy and In Situ Coprolite. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 129(4):620- 629.
AEU SCI GN 1 A49 DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.20314 Female mummy in National Museum of Anthropology of Florence. Exact provenience unknown, other than from Cuzco, Peru. AMS dating indicates a date of around 980 - 1170 AD. Looked for bacaterial DNA from coprolite in mummy's large bowel. (mtDNA of mummy bone showed individual belonged to haplogroup D, one of the four main haplogroups present in modern indigenous Amerind populations, but not an exact match for any mtDNA sequences in available database.) For bacterial DNA, had to take steps to distinguish betwen ancient and modern bacteria, since modern bacteria can so easily contaminate the sample. Found 10 significant bacterial DNA signatures in coprolite. Most were ones that could be found in normal human faeces. One (Haemophilus parainfluenzae) can be associated with disease. Shows that this bacterium was present in indigenous populations well before European contact. (11/11/2007).

Madsen, D. B., and J. E. Kirkman 1988
Hunting Hoppers. American Antiquity 53(2):593-604.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Summarizes abundant ethnographic evidence from Great Basin, including region around Great Salt Lake, for people collecting and eating insects, especially crickets and grasshoppers, particularly as stored food over winter. Points out ethnocentric biases in these accounts (Europeans generally don't eat insects and regard the practice with revulsion). Insects could be roasted and eaten whole or ground into a type of flour. Flour mixed with pounded berries and pine nuts to make a food called "desert fruit cake." Notes records of insect use at three archaeological sites east of the Great Basin: Leigh Cave, the Eden-Farson site, and a site along the Yampa River. First two had evidence of mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex). Notes that human coprolite specimens at Danger and Hogup caves, near Great Salt Lake, contained insect fragments, as did coprolites at Lovelock Cave, and possibly at Crypt Cave. At Smith Creek Cave and at Lakeside Cave, found large numbers of grasshopper (Melanopus sanguinipes) remains. At Lakeside Cave, 9 organic/sand couplets are underlain by Mazama Ash. Fine screened fill from a 1 m2 excavation unit and examined all residues. Found 8,772 specimens, hopper remains, from this residue. Most hopper parts from lower 5 cultural units, bracketted by 4710 and 4450 yr BP radiocarbon dates. Human coprolites occur in these layers too and contain mostly hopper parts and sand. Hopper parts are fragmented, suggesting hoppers eaten whole rather than ground to a flour. Very large numbers of hoppers estimated for cave deposit as a whole. Consider that hoppers were probably gathered from windrows that accumulate along lake shore during frequent periodic hopper infestations. Computed return rate on gathering hoppers from these windrows compared to other foods and concluded that the rate of return (in calories) was higher than any other collected food resource. 16 times higher that for highest value collected seed (Scirpus). However, hoppers have to be eaten close to collecting site because it would be difficult to transport enough to be worthwhile (i.e., very light and occupy large volume). Very intriguing paper. (25/11/2007).

Marlar, R. A., B. L. Leonard, B. R. Billman, P. L. Lambert, and J. E. Marlar 2000
Biochemical Evidence of Cannibalism at a Prehistoric Puebloan Site in Southwestern Colorado. Nature 407(7 September 2000):74-78.
AEU SCI Q 1 N28 Reports on analysis of human remains and a coprolite from a site along Cowboy Wash, southwestern Colorado. Three pithouses appear to have been abandoned suddenly, around 1150 AD. Bodies of seven people were disarticulated and apparently cooked. Some stone tools tested positively for human blood residue. Human myoglobin (a type of protein) was detected on shards of a cooking vessel. Unburned human coprolite found in hearth. Macro analysis did not detect plant remains, suggesting meat formed meal or meals represented by coprolite. Human myoglobin detected in this too. Tests showed that human myoglobin can be distinguished from that of other animals, and that it is not normally found in human faeces (i.e., it was not derived directly from the person who excreted the coprolite). Authors consider that this study shows direct evidence for consumption of human flesh. Accompanied by a commentary, "Talk of Cannibalism," by Jared M. Diamond, pp. 25-26.

Marquardt, W. H. 1974
A Statistical Analysis of Constituents in Human Paleofecal Specimens from Mammoth Cave. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 193-202. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 24 in the volume. Used the data from the 27 coprolite specimens from Mammoth Cave analyzed by R. B. Stewart and data from work by Yarnell. In Stewart's work, seeds separated from matrix and dried before identification. Assemblage predominantly hickory nutshell, with maygrass, sunflower, and chenopod seed, and plant and fruit skin. These components comprise 96.7% assemblage by weight. Yarnell's data for were recorded on an abundance scale, looking at 100 specimens from Salts Cave. In Mammoth Cave assemblage, sunflower, chenopod, and sumpweed seeds predominate, with hickory nutshell, maygrass seeds, and squash and gourd seeds. These make up 88% of the assemblage. About 67% overall assemblage was remains from cultivated seeds (gourds, squash, sunflower, sumpweed and chenopods). Examines correlations between co-occurrences of certain types of seeds in both data sets. At Mammoth Cave, he detects strong associations between hickory nut, sumpweed, chenopod, and sunflower. These four are not associated with maygrass. Maygrass is either present in quantity or not at all, suggesting immediate consumption after gathering. Other seeds and plants may represent stored foods. Also, maygrass grows on disturbed ground so may be an indicator of increased cultivation, especially in the upper levels. Data sets from Mammoth Cave and Salts Cave showed more similarities than differences. Suggests similar subsistence strategies at both sites. (19/Aug/2011).

Martin, P. S., and F. W. Sharrock 1964
Pollen Analysis of Prehistoric Human Feces: A New Approach to Ethnobotany. American Antiquity 30(2 Part 1):168-180.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 A classic paper. Reports the analysis of 54 samples of human and nonhuman faeces from alcoves in the Glen Canyon region, Colorado River, southern Utah. Most samples assumed to be of human origin; others of canids (?coyote) and probably horses. Age of samples is not known precisely; most appear to come from Pueblo or Basketmaker sites, hence probably late prehistoric. Pollen assemblage dominated by Zea, Cleome, Cucurbita, and Opuntia. Identified these as "economic" types, rather than background pollen rain. One sample contained 92% Populus pollen, perhaps from intake of cottonwood catkins and buds as greens in early spring. One sample dominated by low-spine composite pollen, again probably reflecting consumption. Two samples had more than 50% Zea pollen, but generally this was present in lesser abundance than its importance in the diet might suggest. Cleome (beeweed) is important ethnographically, and hence its occurrence in high percentage is not unexpected, despite the fact that it is entomophilous. Cucurbit (squash) pollen may reflect consumption of flowers (known ethnographically). Similarly, high amounts of Opuntia (probably Platyopuntia) pollen in two samples might be related to flower consumption. Remains of cactus are common in cave and alcove sites, indicating its importance as a dietary item. Animal dung shows few "economic" pollen types but predominance of tree or shrub pollen (Pinus, Juniperus, Artemisia, and Ephedra), also Cheno-Ams, Compositae, and Gramineae pollen (i.e., resembles the background pollen rain).

Matsui, A., M. Kanehara, and M. Kanehara 2003
Palaeoparasitology in Japan - Discovery of Toilet Features. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):127- 136.
Reviews recent work in Japan. First palaeoparasitological study was of a cesspit of Fujiwara Palace, Nara Prefecture, dated around 700 AD. Recovered parasite eggs including roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), Yokogawa fluke (Metagonimus yokogawai), liver fluke (Clinorchis sinensis) and tapeworm (Taenia sp.). The Yokogawa flukes are from fish consumption, specifically Ayu fish (Plecoglossus altevelis), a freshwater catadromous fish (= migrating from fresh to seawater to spawn). Taenia eggs also found in cesspits of 8th century guesthouse of Koro-Kan, Fukuoka City, and are thought to be from foreign visitors, since local people probably did not eat much meat. Cesspits at Yanagi-no-goshu site in northeast Japan, dated to the 12th century, yielded fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) probably from salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) consumption. Coprolites found in Jomon shell middens (prior to about 3000 yr BP). Later (Yayoi to Kofu Periods, 400 BC - 400 AD), moats around settlements may have been used for cess disposal, as shown by roundworm and whipworm eggs and dung beetle remains. Also found amaranth and chenopod seeds in these sediments, possibly from medicinal use. Wood conduit at Makimuku site, Nara Prefecture, dated to 3rd century AD, also yields parasite eggs. Probably part of a toilet system. Also found lung fluke (Paragonimus spp.) eggs, from consumption of river crabs, and pollen of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) use as a parasiticide, suggests medicinal use. Reports several other structures that may be from flushing type of toilet system, again associated with parasite eggs. Several are dated around 800 - 900 AD at the Fujiwara capital. These studies provide perspective on urban hygiene and sanitation. (18/05/2008).

Mitchell, P. D., E. Stern, and Y. Tepper 2008
Dysentery in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: An ELISA Analysis of Two Medieval Latrines in the City of Acre (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science 35:1849-1853.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.017 Study designed to find out which organism caused the dysentery suffered by so many of the crusaders, and which was a significant cause of death. Looked at sediments from 12th to 13th century latrine and cess pond. The medical diagnostic kits used detect proteins produced by the micro- organisms. Dating confirmed by AMS (latrine) and by artifacts (coins) in the cess pool. In latrine soil found evidence for Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis. Neither found in samples from cess pool. Also found eggs of the following parasites: whipworm (Trichuris trichuria), roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), beef or pork tapeworm (Taenia sp.) and fish tapeworm (Diphyllobthrium latum). Suggests that these two protozoans were cause for the dysentery suffered by the Crusaders. (21/11/2008).

Moffett, L. 1992
Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs and Other Plants from the Latrine at Dudley Castle in Central England, Used by the Royalist Garrison During the Civil War. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 73:271-285.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Dudley is 15 km NW of Birmingham in the English midlands. Because of damage to structure during Civil War, contents of one latrine can be associated with castle garrison between about 1642 - 1647 AD. Main components found include strawberry (Fragaria vesca) seeds, figs (Ficus carica), grapes, blackberry/raspberry, cherry, plum (damson, sloes, bullace), apple, pears, medlar (Mespilus germanica), hazelnuts, and walnuts. Unusual plants include the non-native marigold (Calendula officianalis) used for culinary and medicinal purposes, also coriander, dill, fennel, and fragments of cucurbit seeds (Cucurbita pepo), though whether pumpkin, squash, or marrow is not clear. These New World plants were cultivated in England by the 16th - 17th century. Assemblage also contained seeds from weeds of disturbed ground or cultivated areas. Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago) seeds are poisonous but are common in arable fields - often a contaminant in bread, so perhaps an indirect indicator of cereals though no indisputable cereal remains were found. Some weedy plants may in fact have been from gardens. Wide range of plants but few that indicate high status or luxury (only perhaps grapes and figs). Most plants probably grown locally, perhaps in the castle's own kitchen garden. (14/04/2002).

Moore, J. G., G. F. Fry, and E. Englert Jr 1969
Thorny-headed Worm Infection in North American Prehistoric Man. Science 163:1324-1325.
AEU SCI Q 1 S41 Examination of coprolites from Danger Cave, Utah. Parasite eggs found in specimens from D-V level (dated at around 1700 yr BP) and one specimen from D-IV level (dated at around 3800 yr BP). Eggs were identified as belonging to phylum Acanthocephala, likely the species Monoliformis clarki, which is endemic in the area around the cave today. The life cycle of this species involves the camel cricket (Ceuthophilus utahensis) and small rodents. Humans are not the usual host for this parasite. Infection may have occurred as a side effect from ingestion of insects or rodents; insects may have formed a dietary item. Infection by this parasite may have severe (or fatal) consequences for the host, so it probably had an effect on individual if not community health. The potential for infection remained constantly present because of the reservoir in the surrounding animal population.

Moore, J. G., A. W. Grundman, H. J. Hall, and G. F. Fry 1974
Human Fluke Infection in Glen Canyon at AD 1250. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 41:115- 118.
AEU SCI GN 1 A49 Coprolite from Defiance House site in Forgotten Canyon. Specimen was found within walls of masonry structure, hence likely of human origin. Sample yielded plant macroremains, including Cucurbita (squash), Oryzopsis (Indian rice grass), and Zea mays (corn). One fluke egg also recovered, species unknown. Could be from direct parasitism, or false parasitism (e.g., from eating animal that was infected). Found many faunal remains at the site, from different animals that typically carry fluke. (09/06/2008).

Mudie, P. J., S. Greer, J. Brakel, J. H. Dickson, C. Schinkel, and R. Peterson-Welsh (and Margaret Stevens, Nancy J. Turner, Mary Shadow, and Rosalie Washington) 2005
Forensic Palynology and Ethnobotany of Salicorna Species (Chenopodiaceae) in Northwest Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany 83:111-123.
AEU SCI QK 1 C21 Examined pollen in stomach contents and from robe of Kwädáy Dän Ts'ìnchí (Long Ago Person Found), a body found in NW British Columbia near the Yukon border, dated around 500 yrs ago. Salicornia pollen found in stomach contents. ESEM imagery showed grains resembled Salicornia pacifica, a taxon characteristic of salt marshes. Identity was confirmed by additional SEM imagery. Coastal taxon, Salicornia perennis (glasswort) grains are very similar. Ethnographic work (interviews) confirmed that coastal Salicornia species were used for food, whereas interior salt flat species (Salicornia rubra) was not used in this area. Evidence in total suggests that man probably ate his last meal in the coastal area (or of coastal foods) rather than inland. Long tradition of coast to interior travel. This find indicates that this pattern may have been established for centuries. Does not clarify, however, which First Nations group this person may have been affiliated with. (04/07/2005).

Napton, L. K. 1969
Archaeological and Paleobiological Investigations in Lovelock Cave, Nevada: Further Analysis of Human Coprolites. Kroeber Anthropological Society Special Publications 2 98 pp.
AEU HSS F843 N22

Napton, L. K., and G. K. Kelso 1969
Part III: Preliminary Palynological Analysis of Human Coprolites from Lovelock Cave, Nevada. In Archaeological and Paleobiological Investigations in Lovelock Cave, Nevada, edited by L. K. Napton, pp. 19-27. Kroeber Anthropological Society Paper 2. Kroeber Anthropological Society, Berkeley, California, USA.
Analyzed pollen from ten human coprolites. Only three yielded pollen. Assemblages are dominated by Typha (cattail) pollen, some of which appears burnt. Conclude that pollen or cattail flowers eaten; ethnographic records of people in the area consuming baked cattail pollen. Also contained Gramineae (grass) and Cyperaceae (sedge) pollen, and various other NAP types. Sedge pollen probably derived from water of nearby Humboldt Lake or from consumption of seeds of various Scirpus species, also recorded ethnographically. (18/06/2006).

Napton, L. K., and G. K. Kelso 1970
Preliminary Palynological Analysis of Human Coprolites from Archaeological Contexts, with Primary Reference to Lovelock Cave, Nevada. Contributions of the University California Archaeology Research Facility No 10 Archaeology and the Prehistoric Great Basin Lacustrine Subsistence Regime as Seen from Lovelock Cave, Nevada, edited by R. F. Heizer and L. K. Napton, pp. 87- 129.
AEU HSS E78 G65 H47

Newman, M. E., R. M. Yohe II, H. Ceri, and M. Q. Sutton 1993
Immunological Protein Residue Analysis of Non-lithic Archaeological Materials. Journal of Archaeological Science 20:93-100.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 Immunological techniques are used for detection of proteins derived from blood. Experiments to see if meat residues can be detected in faecal samples by this technique - cross-over immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). Collected dung from zoo animals (two carnivores, big cats, and two herbivores) to see if proteins present in dung - carnivores were fed horse meat. Positive results (cat and horse) for the carnivore dung, not for the herbivore dung. Five (presumably human) coprolites from an open air site in Coachella Valley at CA-RIV-3862 were examined for macros - found vertebrate remains, fishbone and plant material. CIEP yielded negative results for all these samples. Possibly the proteins too degraded by weathering in open air context. Also tested seven (presumably human) coprolites from Lovelock Cave. Most tested positive for human and pronghorn. Also examined range of soil samples from non-archaeological contexts and from archaeological sites (including Head-Smashed-In) to see if protein residues could be detected. Most of these samples were negative. Only the dry cave (Lovelock Cave) coprolite samples yielded consistently positive results. Comment that results probably greatly influenced by preservation effects. (08/04/2009).

Nye, S. 1990
Botanical Remains. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies (for 1989) 36:249- 252. Analysis of a Cesspit Fill from the Tudor Merchant's House, Tenby, Dyfed, edited by K. Murphy, vol. 36.
Much of botanical material was mineralized. Main remains recovered were slow stones (Prunus spinosa) also some damson (Prunus domestica ssp. insititia), blackberry seeds (Rubus fruticosus), fig (Ficus carica), grape (Vitis vinifera), and strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Most remains of various fruits, whether wild or cultivated not known. Some herb seeds. Some remains may reflect import through Welsh ports (e.g., figs, grapes, perhaps prunes). Very little cereal material, bread made from flour with no bran.

Poinar, H. N., M. Kuch, K. D. Sobolik, I. Barnes, A. B. Stankiewicz, and T. Kuder (and W. G. Spaulding, V. M. Bryant, A. Cooper, and S. Pääbo) 2001
A Molecular Analysis of Dietary Diversity for Three Archaic Native Americans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 98(8):4317-4322.
Examined three coprolites from Hinds Cave (Texas). Amplified DNA sequences from them and matched against database of known samples for plants and animals. Samples were AMS dated; all yielded dates falling in range 2100 - 2400 yr BP. Checked to see if samples of human origin by examining mitochondrial DNA; results showed a good match with contemporary Native American mtDNA, also indicated that samples were from three different people. Wide range of plant families identified including Liliales, Asteraceae, Ulmaceae, Fagaceae, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Fouquieriaceae, and Rhamnaceae. Examination of plant macroremains in samples showed Liliaceae, Fabaceae, and Ulmaceae. Interestingly, these also shows remains of Cactaceae, which was not found in DNA analysis. Animal sequences showed match to Ovis (sheep), pronghorn, and cottontail rabbit. Macroremains analysis showed remains of small mammals and fish; perhaps large mammals not identified because meat, not bone, consumed, so their macroremains not found in coprolites. Results showed a varied and diverse diet. Diet included hackberry, sunflower family, yucca or agave, opuntia, oak, legume family, nightshade family, ocotillo, buckthorn family, and meat from at least pronghorn, rabbit, bighorn sheep, packrat, squirrel, fish, and cottontail. Each sample contained a variety of food types. (14/04/2002).

Reinhard, K. J. 1988
The Cultural Ecology of Prehistoric Parasitism on the Colorado Plateau as Evidenced by Coprology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 77:355- 366.
AEU SCI GN 1 A49 Partly a review article, dealing with parasites extracted from coprolites. Suggests that parasites infesting humans may reflect culture, especially changes in lifeways, such adoption of agriculture. Change from hunter- gatherers to agriculturalists on the Colorado Plateau. Case study at Anasazi ruins of Antelope House and Salmon Ruin, and hunter- gatherers by Dust Devil Cave. Reviews main features of each lifeway that may influence parasitism. Reviews evidence from each of the three case study sites. Dust Devil Cave coprolites yielded no parasite evidence. Salmon Ruin coprolites contained few parasites, other than pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis). Antelope House coprolites yielded tapeworm and roundworm eggs. Possibly also eggs of strongylate worms, and evidence of threadworm (Strongyloides). Concludes that agriculture is associated with change (increase) in parasite load. Coprolites also contain Chenopodium seeds, possible may have helped to limit parasitism (some taxa have anthelmintic properties). Seeds contain a chemical called ascaridol. Sedentary agricultural populations may have been more vulnerable to parasites, because of crowding and sanitation issues. Grain storage and consequent increase in rodents may also have increased chances of parasitism. Of the four parasites identified at Antelope House, three have fairly mild health effects, though if hookworm were present, effects would be more severe. However, threadworm can have severe health effects and can be highly debilitating. How widespread was infection at Antelope House? Difficult to tell because of preservation and sampling bias. Nevertheless, parasites were present in several coprolites at Antelope House (including coprolites from dogs) suggesting that infestation may have been widespread in the population with consequent health effects. Parasite infestation at Salmon Ruin less because of foraging in drier areas and also establishment of latrine areas in the habitation area. (27/07/2005).

Reinhard, K. J. 1991
Recent Contributions to New World Archeoparasitology. Parasitology Today 7:81-82.
AEU SCI QL 757 P2845 A short letter outlining some of the recent advances in archaeoparasitology, in response to a somewhat negative review article.

Reinhard, K. J. 2006
A Coprological View of Ancestral Pueblo Cannibalism. American Scientist 94(3):254-261.
AEU SCI Q 1 A51 Presents his views on the evaluation of the Cowboy Wash coprolite and the evidence for cannibalism. Makes the point that one coprolite should not necessarily result in a whole-sale re-branding of all pueblo peoples of that time as cannibals. Surveys evidence from many coprolite studies from the US southwest, showing the range of plant foods incorporated in diets. Paper contains some useful colour pictures of seeds recovered from these studies. This is an interesting personal perspective on the furore. (05/05/2006).

Reinhard, K. J., J. R. Ambler, and M. McGuffie 1985
Diet and Parasitism at Dust Devil Cave. American Antiquity 50:819-824.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Site is in southern Utah, associated with the Desha Complex (6800 - 4800 yr BC). Absence of pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) ova in samples suggests the cave's inhabitants were free of intestinal parasites. Large quantities of Chenopodium seeds identified. Chenopodium is a vermifuge and so would account for lack of parasite ova. Authors note that other populations in the southwest where Chenopodium was not consumed exhibit greater parasite loads. Pinworm present in most other studies of faecal samples from Colorado Plateau. A similar pattern is evident in Anasazi populations.

Reinhard, K. J., J. R. Ambler, and C. R. Szuter 2007
Hunter-Gatherer Use of Small Animal Food Resources: Coprolite Evidence. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 17:416- 428.
DOI: 10.1002/oa.883 Begins by suggesting that small animal bone in coprolites has been overlooked in coprolite studies. Reviews data on bones in coprolites from Lovelock Cave, Hinds Cave, and Dust Devil Cave. Hinds Cave - 97 out of 100 coprolites contained bone, identified material includes birds, reptiles, fish and mammals, very diverse food assemblage. Discusses problem of identifying biological origin of coprolites, i.e., whether human or not. Variety of criteria suggested (especially for distinguishing human from dog coprolites). On these bases, conclude that coprolites from Dust Devil and Hinds caves are human in origin. Rest of paper consists of comparison of coprolite and zooarchaeological evidence from Dust Devil and Hinds caves. At Hinds Cave, coprolite evidence shows more small mammals eaten than the zooarchaeological analyses suggest (those indicate deer was main source of meat). At Dust Devil Cave, occupants hunted cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus) based on zooarchaeological evidence; coprolites show similar results. Hinds Cave - warm season occupation. Dust Devil Cave - cold season occupation. Dust Devil Cave coprolites suggest entire rabbits, including viscera, were eaten, and most bone is not charred. Ethnographic evidence suggests bones of small mammals often pounded and eaten. Suggests it would be useful to see if biochemical methods might yield more information about meat consumption. (01/07/2008).

Reinhard, K. J., V. M. Bryant, and S. Vinton 2007
Comment on Reinterpreting the Pollen Data from Dos Cabezas. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 17:531- 541.
DOI: 10.1002/oa.886 Vigorous critique of paper by Geyer et al. (2003). Critique revolves around methodology of sampling (no control samples), probable misidentification of pollen taxa, unwarranted taxonomic resolution of pollen data (especially identification to species) in the absence of reference material and no supporting evidence (e.g., images), and probable mistakes in interpretation of the data. Also fault Geyer et al. for lack of familiarity with the literature and lack of botanical knowledge, especially concerning the life history of the species they reported, and lack of ethnobotanical knowledge as to how plants were prepared and used. Notes that some taxa (such as fava bean (Vicia faba)) were not present in pre-Columbian times and are therefore unlikely to have been ingested and present in these burials from contemporary sources. Especially critical of identification of pollen from plants used as food that were tubers or roots, since pollen would be most unlikely present on these plant parts, and points out that these are mostly insect pollinated anyway. Many plants identified by Geyer et al. are not endemic to coastal lowlands of Peru but grow in high elevetion, Andean, areas. Point out that starch grain analysis may prove helpful at these sites as would macros (seed) analysis. Notes that some of the poisonous/medicinal plants identified by Geyer et al. grow far from the coastal area and that there is no other evidence of their being used by the Moche. Unwise to base interpretation solely on basis of questionable pollen work. (23/03/2008).

Reinhard, K. J., S. M. Chaves, J. G. Jones, and A. M. Iñiguez 2008
Evaluating Chloroplast DNA in Prehistoric Texas Coprolites: Medicinal, Dietary, or Ambient Ancient DNA? Journal of Archaeological Science 35:1748-1755.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2007.11.013 Discusses the results of the study by Poinar et al. (2001) - listed elsewhere in The Dung File - especially the five cpDNA sequences representing plant taxa not found in macrofossil or pollen analysis. [cpdna is from the maternal side, pollen is paternal, but authors cite some evidence that suggests cpdna can be present in proplastids in vegetative cells in pollen - hence cpdna could be present in pollen samples.] Explore possibility that these may be derived these may be derived from ambient ( = inadvertent) incorporation in faeces, such as eating small animals whole (plant material would be derived from animals' gut contents), drinking various infusions or teas, or plant material, especially pollen, may be deposited on food or be in drinking water consumed. Could not test the coprolites used in the Poinar et al. (2001) study, so looked at 19 Hinds Cave coprolites of Middle Archaic age. [Did not undertake any molecular work on these coprolites - not clear why not.] Looked at pollen and small animal remains from coprolite samples. The animal remains indicated whole animals consumed, likely in raw or semi-cooked state. Found 47 identifiable pollen taxa in samples, one fern taxon, and five unidentifiable pollen types. Considered that concentration values indicated that 25 taxa reflected direct consumption of plant material. Remaining 21 taxa were consistent with ambient pollen input. Thinks this may be from ambient ingestion of plant material, rather than pollen residue. Eight taxa identified by Poinar et al. (2001) examined. 1. Asteraceae cpdna, no Asteraceae macros, but Asteraceae pollen - Asteraceae plants could have been consumed by prey animals, hence most likely source in human coprolites. 2. Fagaceae cpdna, Quercus pollen in five coprolites, but no macros. Consider that this possibly came from Quercus in ambient sources, through prey animals, or in drinking water. 3. Ulmaceae cpDNA, found Celtis/Ulmus pollen in 10 coprolites, and known that Celtis was a minor food source, so could be derived from either ambient or intentional ingestion. 4. Fabaceae and Liliaceae cpDNA, found pollen from both taxa, especially Dasylirion, suggesting dietary use. Of the three sequences for which no previous pollen or macros evidence: 5. Fouquieriaceae cpDNA - GenBank data suggests Fouquieria (ocotillo) - used for medicinal purposes, but no pollen or macros in tested coprolites. 6. Rhamnaceae cpDNA - GenBank sequence suggest a match with Rhamnus and Sageretia - one Rhamnus species is known to have been used medicinally, but no pollen or macros in tested coprolites. 7. Solanaceae cpDNA - Poinar et al. (2001) suggested Nicotiana or Datura, but no evidence of either in Hinds Cave deposits. GenBank comparison shows a match with Solanum lycopersicum and Lycopersicon esculentum or modern cultivated tomato. Seems impossible. Could this be from some wild Solanum species? This needs more work. Comparison of the two studies suggests use of plants for medicinal or hallucinogenic purposes. Can't assume that cpDNA sequences are from intentional ingestion of plants for food. (07/04/2009).

Reinhard, K. J., and D. R. Danielson 2005
Pervasiveness of Phytoliths in Prehistoric Southwestern Diet and Implications for Regional Temporal Trends for Dental Microwear. Journal of Archaeological Science 32:981-988.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 DOI: 10.1016/j.jas.2005.01.014 Presents data on phytoliths recovered from coprolites, as a way of assessing potential for dental wear (tooth abrasion). Reports on phytoliths from 99 coprolites from five sites (Bighorn Cave, Dust Devil Cave, Salmon Ruin, and Bighorn Sheep Ruin), plus previously published data from Hinds Cave samples. Also looked at phytoliths from modern plant samples as reference material. Cactus and agave/yucca plant families produce calcium oxalate phytoliths, most other plants produce silica phytoliths. About 20% Archaic-aged samples by volume yielded calcium oxalate phytoliths of Agave and cactus. Also found silica phytoliths from Legumes and Cheno/Ams and small amounts of grass phytoliths. Pueblo coprolites yielded much lower volume of phytoliths, although maize was eaten, few maize phytoliths were found. These also contained Cactus and Agave phytoliths and silica phytoliths including those from squash and beans. In the Archaic samples, the small amounts of grass phytoliths may be from consumption of small animals (who ate grass plants) and not direct plant consumption by humans. Desert succulents are very high in fibres - fibrous portion is spit out - quids found at archaeological sites. These plants are likely to cause substantial dental wear in Archaic populations. Data show that wild plants were a component of Pueblo diets. May be indicator of varibility in dental disease in Pueblo populations. Salmon Ruin coprolites have lower phytolith concentrations and less cactus/agave phytoliths, as well as lower tooth wear and dental disease evidence. Implies better diet and time of agricultural stability. Cactus and agave would have been starvation foods for these horticultural people. Phytolith data can be used to construct hypotheses about subsistence patterns. (07/04/2009).

Reinhard, K. J., S. Edwards, T. R. Damon, and D. K. Meier 2006
Pollen Concentration Analysis of Ancestral Pueblo Dietary Variation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 237:92- 109.
AEU SCI QE 500 P15 DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.11.030 Compares data from Salmon Ruin, New Mexico, and Antelope House, Arizona. Coprolites date from Pueblo III Period (dated at 1100 - 1300 AD). Different cultural traditions and environments at sites. Salmon River: oriented to San Juan River region mesa country. Antelope House is in canyon country. Looked at 180 coprolites from AH and 112 from SR; analyzed for macros, phytoliths, and parasites. Of these, 26 from each site looked at for pollen. Chose 16 pollen categories for further statistical analysis. Five of these taxa showed statistically significant differences between the two sites. Maize pollen is prominent at both sites, many grains broken suggesting griding of corn. At AH, Typha pollen important in some coprolites; people collected and consumer Typha spikes. Also possibly consumed Equisetum strobili. Cleome (Beeweed) pollen is most common pollen type after maize, but more so at SR. Cucurbita and Opuntia pollen also at both sites but not in all samples. Notes that pollen can be adhering to seeds, not necessarily indicative that flowers consumed. However, results show that pollen-rich foods were likely consumed at both sites. Discusses confusion in previous papers wrt the palynology. Equisetum spores likely previously misidentified as Populus pollen. Long discussion of how this problem may have arisen and justification for identification of Equisetum spores here. Recommmend that pollen and macros should both be analysed on coprolites. (27/12/2007).

Reinhard, K. J., P. R. Geib, M. M. Callahan, and R. H. Hevly 1992
Discovery of Colon Contents in a Skeletonized Burial: Soil Sampling for Dietary Remains. Journal of Archaeological Science 19:697-705.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 Anasazi burial (NE Arizona). Sacrum acting as a container for contents when burial flat on back. Calibrated with samples from surrounding soil. Pollen and macroremains examined. Seeds of Helianthus and Chenopodium and Amaranthus recovered, also some Caryophyllaceae seeds, with Cryptantha and Panicum. Pollen in sacrum sample dominated by Gramineae with low-spine Asteraceae and Cheno-Am. These are often present as pollen aggregates (clumps) which are not found in soil samples from floor of structure. In contrast, floor samples contain pollen from other crop plants (Zea mays, Cucurbita) and Cleome, with arboreal pollen types. Insect remains (involved in decomposition) found, but no parasite remains. Concludes that sacral sample represents colon contents. Remains are consistent with known dietary components. (28/12/2002).

Reinhard, K. J., R. H. Hevly, and G. A. Anderson 1987
Helminth Remains from Prehistoric Indian Coprolites on the Colorado Plateau. The Journal of Parasitology 73(3):630-639.
AEU SCI QL 757 J86 Reviews work on coprolites and parasite remains recovered from them. Reports on analyses of coprolites from six sites (Dust Devil Cave, Turkey Pen Cave, Antelope House, Salmon Ruin, and Chaco Canyon [Pueblo Bonito, Pueblo Alto, and Kin Kletso]). Remains from Dust Devil Cave date 880 - 6800 yr BP; other sites are Anasazi and date between about 1600 and 700 yr BP. Some coprolites from Anasazi sites are from dogs. Also looked at soils from Elden Pueblo. No parasite remains found in DDC samples. Chenopod seeds found here; perhaps used medicinally against intestinal parasites. In Anasazi samples, a varied assemblage found including: Strongyloides, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides. Agricultural sites generally show E. vermicularis. Parasites at Antelope House may relate to use of wetland food plants. Some remains also found that relate to grain beetles, perhaps from corn ground up for food (hymenolepidid eggs). Possible that high parasite loads may have contributed to the iron deficiency anaemia, of which evidence is seen on skeletal remains from these Anasazi sites. Paper contains photomicrographs of many parasite remains discussed and a summary of preparation techniques. (17/03/2002).

Reinhard, K., and O. Urban 2003
Diagnosing Ancient Diphyllobothriasis from Chinchorro Mummies. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):191- 193.
Chichorro mummies are from Chile. Re- examining slides from a previous study to confirm presence of Diphyllobothrium pacificum (fish tapeworm) eggs. This parasite cycles between fish and sea lions. Humans become infected when they eat poorly-prepared (undercooked?) fish. Size measurements of 107 eggs from 3 mummies confirm D. pacificum. Size of eggs smaller than most reported from modern or ancient infections. Likely that these are immatures which were released after the host (mummy) died. (25/03/2008).

Reinhard, K. J., and P. Warnock 1996
Archeoparasitology and the Analysis of the Latrine Pit Soils from the City of David. In Illness and Healing in Ancient Times, edited by M. Rosovosky, pp. 20-23. University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
Latrine pits include faecal material mixed with ash, possibly used to try and sanitize the pits. Found eggs from pork or beef tapeworm (Taenia) and whipworm (Trichuris). Very high concentrations, up to ca. 11,000 eggs/ml, with about 1,500 from Taenia. Suggests consumption of undercooked meat. Most associated faunal remains were bovine, suggesting probably beef. Whipworm eggs imply poor sanitary practices.

Rhode, D., and D. B. Madsen 1998
Pine Nut Use in the Early Holocene and Beyond: The Danger Cave Archaeobotanical Record. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:1199-1210.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 Pine nuts from various taxa have been valued food resources in western North America. Danger Cave (Utah) pine nut remains from stratified deposits are from single needle pinyon pine (Pinus monophylla) and older ones are from limber pine (Pinus flexilis). Present criteria for distinguishing pinyon from limber pine nuts. Remains span at least the last 10,000 years. Not all macroremains deposited by humans; woodrats, coyotes, and owls may have been important contributors. Owls may bring pine nut remains as part of their regurgitated pellets. But nut remains from owl pellets have different morphological characteristics (e.g., show evidence of digestive processing, have animal residues attached) compared to human deposited remains. Conclude that nut remains probably derived from coprolites. Pine nuts in deposit for at least 7500 years. No pines in vicinity of site now or, probably, in that interval, so pine nuts were brought from some distance away. Suggest that small quantities of nut remains indicate brought to site by people either internally or as travelling provisions (i.e., not going out from DC to distant site to gather nuts and bring them back). Shown also be comparison with abundance of locally-gathered resources: marsh plants (Scirpus sp., bulrush) and pickleweed (Allenrolfea occidentalis). Limber pine present around Danger Cave until about 10,800 yr BP and thereafter present regionally but not close to site. Pinyon pine within foraging distance of DC by 7000 yr BP. Rapidity of dispersal of pinyon pine through Great Basin suggests humans played a role. Nearest pinyon groves are about 25 km away. Replacement also tracked by nut use at DC, i.e., once pinyon became available, limber pine no longer used. Pinyon gives better yield, is easier to collect, occurs in groves, and grows closer to the site.

Robins, D., K. Sales, D. Oduwole, T. Holden, and G. Hillman 1986
Postscript: Last Minute Results from ESR Spectroscopy Concerning the Cooking of Lindow Man's Last Meal. In Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog, edited by I. M. Stead, J. B. Bourke and D. Brothwell, pp. 140-142. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS DA 690 L68 L74 Used thermal history, as inferred from ESR, of the chaff recovered from gut contents, calibrated against ESR signals obtained from modern materials. Determined that the chaff had been heated to between 200°C and 250°C, which is consistent with bread (rather than a porridge or gruel which would likely have had lower heating temperatures). Signal suggested a short interval of heating. Also examined some of the charred material (basically charcoal) from gut contents, which indicated heating temperatures of about 300°C. Concluded that the bread was likely a flatbread, probably unleavened, cooked on a griddle. (25/07/2010).

Robinson, D. 1987
Spice and Famine Food? The Botanical Analysis of Two Post- Reformation Pits from Elgin, Scotland. Circaea 5(1):21-27.
One of the pits was a privy, the other a waste pit, used for the disposal of peat ash. Pits date from 17th or 18th centuries AD. One sample from the latrine pit did not yield any cereal or bran remains but did contain abundant seeds, especially of weedy and resistant types. Notably abundant seeds include corncockle (Agrostemma githago), a cornfield weed, and pennycress (Thlapsi arvense), corn spurry (Spergula arvensis), and fat hen (Chenopodium album). Parasite eggs of whipworm (Trichuris sp.) are abundant. Large amounts of flax fibre (Linum sp.) interpreted as residue from hygiene use. Another sample from the same pit contained abundant seeds of black mustard (Brassica nigra), probably from use as a spice. Various other seeds including fruits and some from weedy species possibly utilized as "famine food." (13/06/2006).

Roust, N. L. 1967
Preliminary Examination of Prehistoric Human Coprolites from Four Western Nevada Caves. University of California Archaeology Survey Report 70:49- 88.
Cited by Reinhard (2000).

Rylander, K. A. 1994
Corn Preparation Among Basketmaker Anasazi: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Zea mays Remains from Coprolites. In Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, edited by K. D. Sobolik, pp. 115-133. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
Examined coprolites from Turkey Pen Ruin (Utah), Woodchuck Cave (Arizona), Three Fir Shelter (Arizona), and Dust Devil Cave (Utah). Notes prevalence of corn (Zea mays) remains in coprolites. Corn remains looked different in different samples. Hypothesized that this might relate to different preparation methods. SEM comparison of experimentally ground corn and corn remains from coprolites form Turkey Pen Ruin. Results suggest some corn probably prepared by grinding.

Samford, P. M. 1991
Pollen, Parasites and Privies: Analysis of an Early 18th Century Privy in Williamsburg. Quarterly Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Virginia 46(4):176-182.
Cited by Faulkner et al. (2000).

Santoro, C., S. D. Vinton, and K. J. Reinhard 2003
Inca Expansion and Parasitism in the Lluta Valley: Preliminary Data. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98 (Suppl. 1):161- 163.
Examined 39 human coprolites: 15 from LIP (pre-Inca) contexts, rest from Inca (LP) contexts. Found evidence for four parasites: pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium pacificum), and hymenolepidid tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana). Data suggest a greater amount of pinworm infection in LP populaions, probably as a result of settlement changes, specifically, concentration of people in larger towns or settlements. Fish tapeworm presence also suggests increased consumption of fish in Inca times. Very high incidence of parasitism, of all types, in LP (Inca phase) populations. (18/05/2008).

Scaife, R. G. 1986
Pollen in Human Palaeofaeces and a Preliminary Investigation of the Stomach and Gut Contents of Lindow Man. In Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog, edited by I. M. Stead, J. B. Bourke and D. Brothwell, pp. 126-135. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS DA 690 L68 L74 This overlaps with archaeology; there is an extensive literature on the analysis of pollen and plant macroremains from coprolites, both human and animal. References cited by Scaife are a guide to some of this literature. Examined four samples taken from different parts of the gut contents of Lindow Man for pollen. Majority of pollen (between 75% and 91%) was of cereal type, which is consistent with the macrobotanical findings of Hillman (1986) and Holden (1986), discussed elsewhere. Small amount of tree pollen, including about 2.5% oak (Quercus) in one sample, and some Holly (Ilex), about 0.5%. Heather (Calluna) pollen forms up to 1.5% of the assemblage. The most surprising finding was that of Mistletoe (Viscum album) pollen in all four samples, up to 1.6% in one sample. This is unlikely to have been an accidental ingestion and raises questions as to ritual use, which is consistent with the presumed mode of death of the person. (25/07/2010).

Scaife, R. G. 1995
Pollen Analysis of the Lindow III Food Residue. In Bog Bodies: New Discoveries and New Perspectives, edited by R. C. Turner and R. G. Scaife, pp. 83-85. British Museum Press, London, England, UK.
AEU HSS GN 805 B64 Pollen analysis of gut contents. Predominance of cereal pollen (agrees with macrobotanical evidence in Holden (1995)). Also evidence of intestinal parasites (Trichuris).

Schoenwetter, J. 1974
Pollen Analysis of Human Paleofeces from Upper Salts Cave. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 49-58. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 6 in the volume. Begins by discussing whether both dietary and palaeoenvironmental data can be derived from palaeofaecal material. Reports analysis of 8 coprolite samples. Each coprolite halved and sampled from the core to minimize contamination. Used a 200 grain count; then scanned for other taxa. Data show that most pollen types are similar to those that comprised the majority of the macroremains identified. Five of the eight samples are dominated (>79%) by pollen from zoogamous (insect pollinated) plants (Acorus, cf. Iridaceae-Amaryllidaceae, cf. Liliaceae, and Compositae, perhaps Helianthus). Three samples are dominated by pollen from anemophilous (wind pollinated) plants (Cheno-Ams, and Ambrosiaceae, perhaps Iva and maybe Ambrosia). It is possible that much of this pollen was adhering to gathered seeds. Suggests that half the samples show spectra characteristic of ingestion of seeds of Chenopodium, Iva, or Helianthus. However, macrofossil samples contained no Iva seeds and less Chenopodium seed than might be expected, with large amounts of hickory shell. Carya not represented in pollen samples. This may suggest that pollen is transported through the gut faster than the food with which it is associated. Other zoogamous pollen types (Iris and Acorus) perhaps from eating flowers or flower buds; some of these plants are known to have been used medicinally, so perhaps consumed as an infusion (tea). This suggests late winter or very early spring consumption (though the small amounts of wind pollinated Quercus or Pinus pollen seems to argue against this). The spectra seem to indicate the consumption of stored foods. Data also suggest limited variety of foods consumed at any one meal (one to three taxa). Also shows reliance on "domesticated" food types. Speculates that spring plants (and perhaps minerals, e.g., mirabilite, from the cave) may have been used for medicinal purposes in late winter when health status at a minimum. Concludes that cave probably used by several small groups of non-village people. (18/Aug/2011).

Schoenwetter, J. 1974
Pollen Analysis of Sediments from Salts Cave Vestibule. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 97-105. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 13 of the volume. Here, Schoenwetter discusses pollen retrieved from eight samples from the vestibule area (Test Pit J, midden deposits). Originally, he was provided with 17 specimens from the Carlston Annis Shell midden locality (Bt-5) and 19 from Test Pit J. He analyzed 13 of the first set and 15 of the second set (28 samples in total). There were problems with processing due to the large amounts of mineral material and low pollen concentration. Undertook 100 grain counts but was only able to get meaningful results from 8 samples from Test Pit J. Upper and lowermost samples are non-midden (i.e., post and pre-occupation respectively). Pollen spectra are dominated by Quercus, Chenopodinnae, Ambrosiaceae, with secondary amounts of Tubuliflorae pollen, Gramineae, Carya, and Pinus pollen. Discusses problems of distinguishing cultural from natural influences in the pollen record. Concludes that Chenopodinnae record is culturally-related. Notes that abundance of this pollen type is consistent with inference of Chenopodium and Amaranthus seed consumption from the macrofossil data. Considers that the Gramineae pollen record may also be culturally- affected. Suggests that changes in Quercus, Carya, and Ambrosiaceae pollen spectra are due to natural events. Pre- occupation levels represent mature oak-hickory forest. Lower occupation levels show disturbance of forest and opening of canopy, hence a larger range of pollen types. Trend continued in later occupation levels with greater representation of weedy species. Oak-hickory forest re-established post-occupation. (18/Aug/2011).

Schoenwetter, J. 1998
Rethinking the Paleoethnobotany of Early Woodland Caving. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology 23(1):23-44.
Undertakes a re-evaluation of all the Mammoth Cave area dung analyses. Examination provoked by ideas presented by Gremillion (1996) and Gremillion and Sobolik (1996), who, based on analysis of palaeofaecal remains from Kentucky and inferred dietary strategies, suggest a contrast between Late/Terminal Archaic and Early Woodland dietary strategies, specifically the greater use of stored food resources in the later interval. Schoenwetter points out that this interpretation is based partly on assignment of seasonality of samples from Salts and Mammoth Caves. G and G&S interpret evidence that caves were visited throughout the year; S considers that the caves were visited after harvest season (late autumn/winter/early spring). Paper reviews arguments for seasonal assignment. Original macrobotanical analyses by Yarnell (1969) suggested a late spring/late summer assignment (especially based on the presence of strawberry [Fragaria] achenes - a taxon that does not store well). Other macrobotanical and pollen analyses support this, though Schoenwetter's (1974) pollen analyses suggest winter/early spring. Notes that macroremains represent seeds that ripened at different seasons yet were consumed together, hence probably consumed after the last ripened (i.e., late summer/autumn). Insect- pollinated and early spring flowering types all suggest May/June consumption, although notes that dried flowers could be used for medicinal teas, hence evidence for seasonality not conclusive. S argues that much of the seasonality evidence is ambiguous - fruits could have been dehydrated and spring wind-pollinated pollen types could have been ingested with water (i.e., resuspended in drinking water). Recompiles data from the various studies. Considers implications of pollen concentration studies (though such data are not available) indicating probability of consumption. Some pollen types (chenopod, sunflower, sumpweed, and maygrass) may be ingested with the seed of those plants as it can survive processing. Such foods may have been stored for later consumption rather than eaten at harvest-time. But chenopod, sumpweed, and sunflower ripen in late summer/early autumn, whereas maygrass (Phalaris caroliniana) ripens May/June. Evidence can be made to support either all year (consumed as ripening) or limited season (consumption of stored foods) scenario. Considers implications of food preparation techniques. If seeds ground or parched and then put in a broth, pollen and seeds would get separated and pass through gut at different rates. Relationship between maygrass pollen and seed is unusual, suggesting these were consumed at different times. Suggests that maygrass seeds were chewed (hence pollen removed and swallowed) and then spit into a container and the mush used to create a mildly alcoholic beer, enhanced by addition of fruit (especially strawberries) supplying sugars. Suggests that this beer may have been consumed as part of ritual preparation for entry into caves in winter season. However, concludes that the seasonality issue remains unresolved.

Scott, L. J. 1979
Dietary Inferences from Hoy House Coprolites: A Palynological Interpretation. The Kiva 44:257-279.
AEU PMC F 786 K62

Shafer, H. J., and V. M. Bryant Jr 1987
Notes on Hinds Cave, Val Verde County, Texas. North American Archaeologist 8(3):249-254.
AEU HSS E 77.8 N86 Deals with criticism of research at Hinds Cave. Reviews the excavation history and strategy. Importance of cave related to finding of latrine area with coprolites that yielded information for dietary studies. Site had been much disturbed by pothunters. Investigation provided information on use of space by site's occupants.

Shafer, H. J., M. K. Marek, and K. J. Reinhard 1989
A Mimbres Burial with Associated Colon Remains from NAN Ranch Ruin, New Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 16:17-30.
AEU HSS CC 1 J865 Analysis of coprolite specimen found in the abdominal cavity of a skeleton (burial) dated around 1000 - 1100 A.D. Yielded abundant pollen (especially Brassicaceae, Zea, and Salix) - a different assemblage from that recovered from adjacent soil samples (dominated by Cheno/Ams, with Poaceae). Few identifiable plant macroremains or fibre (perhaps the man was fed on soup or gruel before death). No parasite remains. Willow and mustard pollen perhaps from a tea brewed from flowers or buds (possible medicinal use). Indicates that season of death may have been late spring (willow flowering). Skeletal remains show evidence of old trauma, pathologies, and osteoarthritis. No cause of death determined.

Shay, C. T. 1984
A Preliminary Report on Archaeobotany and History at Upper Fort Garry, Manitoba, 1846-1882. In Plants and Ancient Man: Studies in Palaeoethnobotany, edited by W. Van Zeist and W. A. Casparie, pp. 123-129. Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the International Work Group for Palaeoethnobotany, Groningen, 30 May - 3 June 1983. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
AEU HSS CC 79.5 P5 I62 Remains from two privy/refuse pits at the Hudson's Bay Company fur trade fort. Deposit associated with higher social class. Remains included legumes, cultivated fruits, wild fruits, imported dried fruits, imported nuts, wild nuts, flowers, and weeds. Greater proportion (and variety) of imported nuts and fruits in later deposit (related to expanded trade). Most abundant seeds are Fragaria, Rubus and Viburnum. Some strawberry and raspberry may have been cultivated. Wood fragments show preponderance of conifers, probably not from local sources. Also mentions eggshell fragments.

Sobolik, K. D. 1988
The Importance of Pollen Concentration Values from Coprolites: An Analysis of Southwest Texas Samples. Palynology 12:201-214.
AEU SCI QE 993 P18 Analyzed 38 human coprolites from Baker Cave, southwest Texas. Date from approximately 900 A.D. (1100 yr BP). Pollen concentration values used to distinguish "economic" (deliberately ingested) and "uneconomic" (background) taxa. Samples with large concentration values also tended to be dominated by a single pollen type, such as Brassicaceae, suggesting recent ingestion of plants from this family. Sobolik cites experimental evidence from Williams-Dean (1978) that suggests that pollen content in faeces will be at a maximum after recent ingestion. Conversely, samples with a diversity of taxa, and lower concentration values, may reflect accidental ingestion of background (mainly anemophilous) types, or the be related to the length of time since ingestion of an economic pollen type. Notes that pollen size and ornamentation may also influence passage through gut.

Sobolik, K. D. 1993
Direct Evidence for the Importance of Small Animals to Prehistoric Diets: A Review of Coprolite Studies. North American Archaeologist 14(3):227-244.
AEU HSS E 77.8 N86

Sobolik, K. D. (editor) 1994
Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA xviii + 321 pp.
Twenty papers and an introduction. Includes several (Bryant; Rylander; Cummings) that focus specifically on coprolite studies and are listed elsewhere in this on-line compilation. Papers focus on the continental USA or Central America.

Sobolik, K. D. 1994
Paleonutrition of the Lower Pecos Region of the Chihuahuan Desert. In Paleonutrition: The Diet and Health of Prehistoric Americans, edited by K. D. Sobolik, pp. 247-264. Occasional Paper No. 22. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.
Reviews evidence including plant remains from 11 sites, faunal remains from 17 sites, 359 coprolites, and 140 human skeletons. Sites include: Conejo Shelter, Baker Cave, Hinds Cave, Parida Cave, and Frightful Cave. Samples span most of the Holocene (late Paleoindian - Late Prehistoric). Plant remains show importance of desert succulents (bulbs used): agave (Agave sp.), yucca (Yucca sp.), and sotol (Dasylirion sp.). Also pads and fruits of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia sp.) Faunal remains include rodents (bone and fur found in coprolite samples, indicating consumption), also rabbit, fish, and some deer. Coprolites yielded remains of coprophagous insects; but suggestions that some other insects were intentionally consumed. Of 106 coprolites examined for parasites, pinworm (Enterobius vermicularis) was found in only one, indicating a very low endoparasite load for the population. Skeletal evidence (bones, teeth) shows population under some nutritional stress. Nutritional content of foods available shows that population generally had access to adequate foods for a healthy existence. Nutritional stress most likely in winter months.

Sobolik, K. D. 1996
Pollen as a Guide to Prehistoric Diet Reconstruction. In Palynology: Principles and Applications. Volume 3: New Directions, Other Applications and Floral History, edited by J. Jansonius and D. C. McGregor, pp. 927-931. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation.
Good if short review with useful reference list. Concentrates on North American work, especially from southern states. Points out limitations of coprolite analyses (e.g., only shows part of dietary spectrum). Plants may include economic types (i.e., deliberately ingested for food). May also include remains of medicinal plants (e.g., Ephedra [Mormon tea], and Prosopis [mesquite]). May also include "background" pollen accidentally or incidentally ingested. Emphasizes importance of pollen concentration studies.

Sobolik, K. D., K. J. Gremillion, P. L. Whitten, and P. J. Watson 1996
Technical Note: Sex Determination of Prehistoric Human Paleofeces. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 101:283- 290.
AEU SCI GN 1 A49 Used fecal steroid analysis to determine sex from 12 human coprolites from Mammoth Cave and Salts Cave, Kentucky. Part of larger sampling and analysis program on these specimens. Used modern samples (4 males, 4 females) as reference group. Used radioimmunoassay (RAI) to determine presence of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in samples. HPLC (high-performance liquic chromatography) used to separate steroid metabolites (estrogens and andogens) in fecal samples. E2 and T of modern samples generally differentiated between male and female samples. Palaeo samples were similar to modern male samples but with some evidence of steroid degradation (weaker signal). Conclude that all palaeo samples were deposited by males. This assumes that all steroids deteriorate at same rate; not known if this is true. Need experimental work to determine this. May be a way to investigate gender-related variability in diet. [Curious that this method has not been taken up and applied as routine in other subsequent studies.] (09/06/2008).

Stead, I. M., J. B. Bourke, and D. Brothwell 1986
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bog. British Museum Publications, London, England, UK. 208 pp.
AEU HSS DA 690 L68 L74 Thirty-three contributions or short articles on the find, beginning with the discovery and excavation, continuing with the medical and forensic examination, and then on to more esoteric aspects, including analysis of gut contents, and discussion of Celtic rituals, oral traditions and folklore relating to bog bodies. Also contents a lengthy appendix which comprises a gazetteer or other bog bodies in Britain and Europe. Lindow Moss is near Wilmslow, Cheshire, England. Lindow Man dates to the Iron Age. There is some question about the dating (different labs giving different results, and the dates from the body differ from those of the enclosing peat). Body dates cluster around 500 AD; peat dates cluster around 500 BC. Only the upper part of the body was recovered; the lower part had been lost in the peat cutting. The body was that of a young man, about mid-twenties, powerfully built, well muscled, and healthy. His hands and nails were not damaged, suggesting that he may have been of high status (i.e., did not do manual labour). He had been deliberately killed, first with two blows on the top of the head (possibly from an axe), then garotted (which broke his neck), and finally his throat was slit. He was unclothed, except for a fox-fur armband. This suggests a ritual killing, as does the presence of mistletoe in his system, which is known to be associated with Druidic Celtic rites. The suggestion is that he was a sacrificial victim. His body was thrown into the bog (actually into a small pool) and incorporated in sediment soon after death because there is little evidence of decomposition. Several contributions focus on the gut contents: Hillman (1986), Holden (1986), Scaife (1986), Jones (1986), and Robins et al (1986). These are discussed in more detail elsewhere in this bibliography. (25/07/2010).

Stewart, R. B. 1974
Identification and Quantification of Components in Salts Cave Paleofeces. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 41-47. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 5 in the volume. Chapter comprises lengthy tables of the analytical results. Eleven palaeofecal samples were examined and are reported in Table 5.1. In Table 5.2, results for 27 samples are reported (each consisting of 5 subsamples). It is not clear whether some of these are the same as those in Table 5.1 or other samples. The chapter does not include any discussion or further information about the data. The main taxa identified are chenopod, Rubus, maygrass, hickory, sunflower, strawberry, grape, and Iva, and some squash and amaranth remains. Common names are used for most taxa, which limits the usefulness of the data. It is also not clear what kind of plant material was identified (i.e., undifferentiated plant tissue, seeds, or cuticles). Samples yielded mostly plant material, and often also charcoal. Some yielded insect fragments. One sample yielded "snake bones" (skeletal elements not given), identified as from Colubrinae. (18/Aug/2011).

Sutton, M. Q., M. Malik, and A. Ogram 1996
Experiments on the Determination of Gender from Coprolites by DNA Analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 23(2):263-267.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 Reports on the analysis of four coprolites, three from La Quinta site (California) and one from Lovelock Cave (Nevada). Includes discussion of methods to extract and amplify DNA. Did recover DNA identified as human; two coprolites from La Quinta suggested male, one female. No recoverable DNA from Lovelock Cave coprolite. Includes a discussion of possible contamination (e.g., from lab staff or from field crew). Results suggest that further analysis might be rewarding. (31/03/2002).

Sutton, M. Q., and K. J. Reinhard 1995
Cluster Analysis of the Coprolites from Antelope House: Implications for Anasazi Diet and Cuisine. Journal of Archaeological Science 22:741-750.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 Antelope House is an Anasazi site in Canyon de Chelly, northeastern Arizona, where occupation spans 500 - 1250 AD. Paper summarizes previous work on coprolites from the site. This study examined macroremains data from 155 coprolites, using cluster analysis, to see if patterns in food use could be distinguished (ie., what plants may have been consumed as a meal). Used 24 coprolites for immunological analysis. Found that there were three main clusters of macroremains samples depending on corn (maize kernels present; ground or milled maize present; no maize); 74% of samples contained maize. Appear to be two distinct forms of maize preparation: fresh corn consumption (e.g., at harvest) vs. winter consumption (ground corn). Whole maize consumed with other plant foods as a supplement. Milled maize found in association with only six other foods (chenopods, amaranths, purslane, dropseed, fibre, and sumac). Non-maize specimens (26% of samples) contain 13 food resources, including chenopods-amaranths. In the immunological analysis, eight samples tested positive to pronghorn (Antilocapra). This appears to have been the most important meat source and was used year-round. Found that milled maize use appears to increase through time, but maize use decreases in later times with an increase in wild foods (is this an environmental deterioration signal?). Generally, there is increased diversity of resource use through time. The authors suggest that the main reason for diversity increase was to spice up a bland maize-based diet.

Trevor-Deutsch, B., and V. M. Bryant Jr 1978
Analysis of Suspected Human Coprolites from Terra Amata, Nice, France. Journal of Archaeological Science 5:387-390.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 Analysis of 40 selected suspected human coprolites (estimated age of samples, 400,000 yr BP). Did not react as should human coprolites to soaking in 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. Samples yielded sand, shell and charcoal fragments. Results did not support the attribution of these as human coprolites.

van Geel, B., J. M. Bos, and J. P. Pals 1983
Archaeological and Palaeoecological Aspects of a Medieval House Terp in a Reclaimed Raised Bog Area in North Holland. Ber Rijksdienst Oudheidkundig Bodemonderz 33:419- 444.
A terp is an artificial mound. Site is in Oostzaan village, west Netherlands, between former Zuyder Zee and North Sea coast. Sediments revealed in a trench across the terp included a dung layer. Coprophilous fungal spores (Type 368, possibly Podospora) in a sample from "old surface" under mound (prior to A.D. 1300) and in another layer further up-section. Dung layer beneath terp probably produced by herbivores (seeds and pollen examined). Grasses dominate, also cereal pollen. Salinity indicators (e.g., Triglochin maritima) present. Parasite remains (Trichuris eggs) and other coprophilous fungal spores and fruiting bodies (Gelasinospora). Also fly larvae (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae). Another dung layer (later in date than mound) interpreted as possibly including human faeces because of presence of a single fruit of Valerianella locusta (corn salad or lamb's lettuce), perhaps cultivated as a vegetable (thermophilous plant, unlikely to be growing wild). Paper also lists criteria for the identification of Cerealia pollen and distinguishing types.

Watson, P. J. (editor) 1974
Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area. Academic Press, New York, USA xxi + 255 pages.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Book consists of 31 chapters and an appendix. Most chapters (21) deal with Salts Cave, including palaeofecal material and intestinal contents of mummies. Five chapters deal with Mammoth Cave, including two on palaeofecal material. Three other caves are described in short chapters: Lee Cave and Bluff Cave in the Mammoth Cave area, and Wyandotte Cave in Indiana. Two chapters are summaries dealing with prehistoric mining and horticulture. The Flint Mammoth Cave system (comprising Salts Cave, Floyd Collins Crystal Cave, and Mammoth Cave and the connecting passages between them) is apparently the "world's largest cave system" (p. xv) with 145 miles of mapped passages. The cave system is in Kentucky and is within a National Park. The caves were entered by people in the archaeological past in order to obtain minerals, such as gypsum, which were chipped from exposures in the cave walls. In the course of this mining activity, people left evidence of their travel along cave passages, including remnants of burnt-out torches, charcoal, and soot smudges on walls and ceilings from the torches, stone tools and lithic debris, broken sandals, and abundant coprolites. At least three bodies have been recovered from parts of the system: one a death from an apparent mining accident ("Lost John"), the other two appear to have been placed in the caves after death as a mortuary practice. Cave use likely began in the Late Archaic but was most intensive in the Late Woodland interval (basically the Late Prehistoric). Cave use spans at least 3000 years. Individual chapters, mostly focussing on the coprolites, are discussed elsewhere in this listing. These include Chapter 5 by Robert B. Stewart, Chapter 6 by James Schoenwetter, Chapter 7 by Elizabeth M. Dusseau and Richard J. Porter, Chapter 8 by Gary F. Fry, Chapter 13 by James Schoenwetter, Chapter 15 by Richard A. Yarnell, Chapter 16 by Richard A. Yarnell, Chapter 24 by William H. Marquardt, Chapter 25 by Vaughn M. Bryant Jr, and Appendix by Patty Jo Watson. (18/Aug/2011).

Watson, P. J. 1974
Theoretical and Methodological Difficulties in Dealing with Paleofecal Material. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 239-242. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Appendix to the volume. Basically a discussion of some of the questions raised by the project and the derived data. Question to be answered is what does a palaeofecal specimen represent? One meal? Or food consumed over several days? Most likely, considering food transit time through human digestive system, that one specimen represents more than one meal but less than four. Also need to consider what does the association between different remains in specimens mean? Is it seasonality? Storage? Food preparation techniques? Or simple food preferences by the consumer? How to quantify the results of palaeofecal analysis? Counts of material is generally unsatisfactory basis for comparison, especially when most material is fragmentary. Similar problems arise with weight or volume comparisons. Difficult to reconstruct what values would mean in terms of food consumed. Need to get some estimate of this in order to assess diet and nutrition parameters. Concludes that more work is needed. (19/Aug/2011).

Watson, P. J., and R. A. Yarnell 1966
Archaeological and Paleoethnobotanical Investigations in Salts Cave, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky. American Antiquity 31(6):842-849.
AEU PMC CC 1 A6 Three levels in the cave system, Upper, Middle and Lower Salts Cave. All levels appear to have been used prehistorically. People visited the cave to get mineral salts, gypsum and mirabilite, an early form of mining. Upper Salts disturbed by 19th and early 20th century visitors. All three levels yielded human coprolites. Analyzed 100 human coprolites, 2 from Lower Salts, 1 from Middle Salts and 87 from Upper Salts. Identified 17 different plant foods. But 80% of bulk was made up from five taxa: sunflower achenes (Helianthus annuus), chenopod seeds (possibly Chenopodium hybridum), marshelder achenes (Iva annua), and hickory (Carya) nutshell. Another 10% comprised maygrass seed (Phalaris caroliniana), squash seed (Cucurbita pepo) and amaranth seeds (Amaranthus sp.). Two coprolites were made up entirely of hickory nutshell. Did not find evidence of maize. Many of these seeds are from likely cultigens. Also found gourd remains (Lagenaria siceraria), another likely cultigen. Some coprolites yielded strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) seeds, blackberry (Rubus sp.) seeds, blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) seeds, and sumac (Rhus sp.). Many of these taxa are associated with fall or winter food storage. But strawberry indicates early summer. A similar though not identical assemblage was previously found at Newt Kash Hollow Shelter and Ozark Bluffs rock shelters. In an addendum reports eleven new C14 dates, five of which were from coprolites. All but one from Lower Salts Cave fell between 290 and 890 years BC. Concludes that lifeway and dates consistent with use by Early Woodland cultural group. [Note: all dates given in years BC, which is confusing.] (09/11/2008).

Webb, S. C., R. E. M. Hedges, and M. Robinson 1998
The Seaweed Fly Thoracochaeta zosterae (Hal.) (Diptera: Sphaerocidae) in Inland Archaeological Contexts: δ13 C and δ15 N Solves the Puzzle. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:1253-1257.
AEU HSS CC 1 J86 Thoracochaeta zosterae now lives along the highwater mark of sea shores, living on decaying seaweed. Archaeologically, its puparia have been found in medieval cess pits. So, did it used to live in cess pits and is now confined to shore. That is, has the fly changed its habitat and/or diet in recent centuries. This question was explored through stable isotope analysis, which can distinguish between predominantly terrestrial and predominantly marine diets. Analysis showed no seaweed present in the archaeological cess pit samples examined (from a site in Oxford, England, far inland and not close to sea shore). Isotopic ratios of archaeological fly puparia showed thay were feeding on decayed plant material, not seaweed. Concluded that the cess pits formed an ideal habitat for the flies (which require a dry stage for their puparae, and the cess pits probably dried out on occasion). Once that habitat disappeared, with hygiene changes, fly was once again confined to shores. This is interesting since it shows that this taxon was able to expand its range and take advantage of a suitable habitat provided by a particular aspect of human occupation. (20/11/2008).

Wiethold, J. 1995
Plant Remains from Town-Moats and Cesspits of Medieval and Post-Medieval Kiel (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). In Res Archaeobotanicae: International Workgroup for Palaeoethnobotany, Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium Kiel 1992, edited by H. Kroll and R. Pasternak, pp. 359-384.
Kiel is located on the shores of the Baltic Sea. Samples taken from an area in the north of the medieval town, southeast of the monastery of St Francis: ten samples from town moats (began 1242, filled by 1309 AD), and twelve samples from late medieval and post-medieval wells and cesspits (late 14th - 17th centuries). Moats: Recovered taxa dominated by wild plants (indicating wet meadows used for haymaking) with some cultivars (e.g., cereals, oil seeds, fruits) and a few grape and fig seeds. Many of the plants are weed taxa. Also contains seeds from Triglochin maritima (seaside arrowgrass), perhaps derived from coastal marshlands. Cesspits: These contain faecal material and kitchen waste. Hence yield a great variety of taxa. Large amounts of cereal brans, cherry stones (Prunus mas, cornelian cherry) and in one case currant seeds (Ribes rubrum and Ribes nigrum, red currants and black currants), perhaps from making compotes. In total, these samples yielded 36 cultivars, 13 collected wild plants, and 92 other wild plants. Remains also include fish bones and in one case mussel shells (Mytilus edulis). Rye and oats (Secale cereale and Avena) are most common cereals, and also buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). Oil seeds (e.g., flax and opium poppy) also present. Fruit remains include apple and pears (Malus domestica and Pyrus communis). Grape pips (Vitis vinifera) probably from imported raisins. Also found rice (Oryza sativa) remains in pits from late 14th - 16th centuries. This would have been an imported luxury item. Remains also included spices and medicinal plants, including some exotic imported types. Fennel, caraway and celery (Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi, and Apium graveolens) were found in all cesspits. Exotic imports include melegueta pepper (Aframomum melegueta) and pepper (Piper nigrum). Beer-making is indicated by remains of hop (Humulus lupulus). Wild berries were probably important dietary items as shown by the abundance of, for example, wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) seeds. Other plant remains are often from weedy plants, while meadow seeds were probably included in the cesspits from straw and animal fodder.

Willemsen, J., R. van't Veer, and B. van Geel 1996
Environmental Change During the Medieval Reclamation of the Raised-Bog Area Waterland (The Netherlands): A Palaeophytosociological Approach. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 94:75-100.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Fungal spores of coprophilous Sordariaceae as an indicator of dung occurrence, plus beetle and other insect remains. Remains and taxa indicative of dung found in their Zone B (dates around 900 - 1000 A.D.).

Wilson, D. G. 1975
Plant Foods and Poisons from Mediaeval Chester. Journal of Chester Archaeological Society 58(1972/3):55- 67.
Late 13th - early 14th century site. Most of sample consisted of Prunus stones, specifically Prunus domestica ssp. insititia (bullace) and Prunus spinosa (sloe). Twenty-eight other taxa found in matrix, most in fragmentary condition. Large number of fragmentary Agrostemma githago (corncockle) seeds. These are poisonous but were used medicinally. Ingestion of substantial amounts would have had serious consequences; acute poisoning can be fatal. Perhaps gathered in error? Or deliberately? Many seed fragments are from plants now considered weeds but which were grown and eaten in earlier times. Perhaps these were used in a gruel or pottage (hence ground). (11/05/2002).

Yarnell, R. A. 1974
Intestinal Contents of the Salts Cave Mummy and Analysis of the Initial Salts Cave Flotation Series. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 109-112. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 15 in the volume. Intestinal contents examined from the cadaver named "Little Alice", which is actually the body of a young boy. Samples (5 examined) consisted mainly of hickory nutshell, sumpweed (Iva) seeds, carbonized material (mainly hickory shell), chenopod seeds, and other material. One sample contained 3 amaranth seeds. Results confirm those of an earlier study by Eric Callen. Notes that the resemblance of this assemblage to those of other faecal (coprolite) samples from the cave, which helps to confirm their identity as human. Next reports flotation results on 12 (sediment) samples from throughout cave. Major seed types identified include chenopod, sumpweed, and amaranth, with some poke (Portulaca) and grass. Rest of material consists of stems, charcoal and plant material. Notes that this assemblage resembles an Eastern Woodland plant assemblage. Similar range of plant taxa to those found in faecal samples. (19/Aug/2011).

Yarnell, R. A. 1974
Plant Food and Cultivation of the Salts Cavers. In Archeology of the Mammoth Cave Area, edited by P. J. Watson, pp. 113-122. Academic Press, New York, USA.
AEU HSS E 78 K3 W34 Chapter 16 in the volume. Reports on analysis of sediment samples from the Salts Cave Vestibule J IV area. Hickory nutshell and seeds are the main plant remains recovered. Shows probable cultivation of weedy annuals for food. Hickory seems to have been a substantial part of the diet, judging by the amount of nutshell. Plants produced in gardens show the greatest steady increase over time. Gourd and squash remains appear in the later part of the record. Sunflower and sumpweed cultivation increasing through the record. Other seeds (e.g., hazel, blueberry) indicate forest clearance, especially in upper levels. Compared with results from analysis of faecal (coprolite) samples. Shows that meat was consumed in about half the meals but was a very small proportion of total diet. Flotation samples and faecal samples show consistencies. Chenopod, sunflower, and maygrass seeds are a prominent part of the diet, with hickory. Concludes that garden production contributed at least two-thirds to diet and food supply. An unexpected conclusion. (19/Aug/2011).

Zimmerman, M. R., and G. S. Smith 1975
A Probable Case of Accidental Inhumation of 1,600 Years Ago. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 51:828- 837.
AEU HLTHSC Autopsy report on mummified remains of an elderly woman found on St Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Conclude that cause of death was likely asphyxiation, since moss and trauma found in the airway, possibly from accidental burial in landslide that buried dwelling. Found fish trematode parasite, Cryptocotyle lingua, in faeces. C14 date established age of the body though date details (i.e., lab number) are not given. (13/04/2009).

Zutter, C. 1999
Congruence or Concordance in Archaeobotany: Assessing Micro- and Macro-botanical Data Sets from Icelandic Middens. Journal of Archaeological Science 26(7):833-844.
AEU PMC CC 1 J86 Examines midden and farmyard samples from two localities on the north coast of Iceland.Midden samples date back to AD 1050. Concludes that the micro (pollen) and macro (seeds) component are not congruent, but that the differences between them provide important information about plant use at a site.

Number of citations: 152

Mostly Human


This presentation has been compiled and is © 1998-2013 by
Alwynne B. Beaudoin (
Last updated March 2, 2013
You are visitor #16435

For optimal viewing, the following browsers are recommended:
Firefox, Google Chrome, Opera, Safari and SeaMonkey.