The Dung File consists of a list of references dealing with pollen, parasites, and plant remains in coprolites and latrine fills from archaeological and palaeoenvironmental sites. The focus is on studies in North America.

The Dung File is subdivided into eleven sections: four depend on the origin of the deposits being investigated (Part 1: Mostly Human, Part 2: Mainly Mammal, Part 3: Animal Middens, Part 4: Other Critters), there are two broader categories, Part 5: General and Review Articles, Part 6: Field and Laboratory Methods, one focussed on theses, Part 7: Theses, and two focussed on modern comparative studies, Part 8: Comparative Studies - Human and Part 9: Comparative Studies - Mammal. Finally, there are a number of articles from news magazines and the popular press (Part 10: Popular Press and Commentary) and some less readily available items listed in Part 11: Conference Abstracts and Grey Literature.

The call numbers are for the library system at the University of Alberta. The remarks in black are my comments.

Part 11: Conference Abstracts and Grey Literature


Ambro, R. D., and R. D. Cowan 1966
Coprolite Analysis for Lovelock Cave, Nevada, with Comparisons from the Archaeological and Ethnographic Data for the Area. In Abstracts of Papers, 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. Meeting held with Great Basin Anthropological Conference. Reno, Nevada, USA.
Cited by Fry (1977).

Berg, G. 1997
Stomach and Intestinal Contents in Skeletonized Burials from Central Arizona: A Multidisciplinary Approach. In 68th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. St Louis, Kansas, USA.
Cited in Berg (2002). (13/05/2009).

Betancourt, J. L., and T. R. Van Devender 1980
Late Quaternary Vegetational History of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: The Packrat Midden Record. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Sixth Biennial Meeting. pp. 23-24. The Structure of an Ice Age. August 18-20, 1980, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
Reports on 23 middens spanning the late Pleistocene to Holocene. Late Pleistocene middens include abundant arboreal taxa, several of which are not present today in the local area. Late Holocene middens may provide information relating to the impact of Anasazi occupation of Chaco Canyon on vegetation, especially on pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma). Trees may have been used both for fuel and for construction. Radiocarbon dates on middens show that pinyon and juniper were present in mid and late Holocene, but a midden dated around 460 yr BP lacks these taxa. This could indicate impact of human occupation but needs more work to confirm. (03/12/2007).

Bryant Jr, V. M. 1982
Archaeological and Palynological Analysis of Specimens and Materials Recovered from Two Historic Period Privies and a Well in the St Alice Revetment, St James Parish, Louisiana. Cultural Resources Laboratory Report PD-RC-92-03. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
Cited by Reinhard and Bryant (1992).

Cole, K. 1980
Late Pleistocene and Holocene Vegetational Gradients in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Sixth Biennial Meeting. p. 57. The Structure of an Ice Age. August 18-20, 1980, University of Maine, Orono, Maine.
Examined records from 46 packrat middens spanning 950 m to 2200 m. 20 middens, constrained by C14 dates between 19,000 and 12,100 yr BP, indicate full-glacial vegetation, with an elevational lowering of between 600 and 700 m for several tree taxa. Suggests cold and dry conditions. In early Holocene, similar vegetation to present day became established, though still about 300 m lower than present elevations. Concludes that species behaving individualistically, rather than vegetation communities moving en masse. (03/12/2007).

Cole, K., J. McCorriston, and A. Miller 2001
Holocene Paleoenvironments of the Southern Arabian Highlands Reconstructed Using Fossil Hyrax Middens. In 86th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of America, Scientific Program. p. 86.
Rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) midden material in Yemen dated between about 5200 - 2100 yr BP. Changes in contents may indicate a shift from early-mid Holocene aridity to late Holocene moister conditions. Highlands may have been abandoned by people during interval of maximum aridity. (03/08/2005).

Cole, K. L. 1982
Pleistocene Packrat Middens from the Western Sierra Nevada, California. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Seventh Biennial Conference. p. 83. Character and Timing of Rapid Environmental and Climatic Changes. June 28-30, 1982, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Reports on packrat middens from west side of Sierra Nevada, characterized by Mediterranean vegetation types. Middens (four mentioned here) are in oak-chapparal and have yielded dates from more than 45,000 to 12,500 C14 yr BP. Reports on both pollen and macrofossil records. Evidence of a mixed coniferous forest and perhaps more xeric than present conditions through late Pleistocene. Some pollen can be identified as fro, Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron gianteum) suggesting that this area may have been a refugium for the species in full-glacial times. (04/12/2007).

Cole, K. L., and T. R. Van Devender 1984
Seasonality and the Summer Monsoon: Packrat Midden Sequences from the Lower Colorado Valley. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Eighth Biennial Meeting. p. 24. Seasonal Climatic Responses in the Quaternary. August 13-15, 1984, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Examines packrat midden records spanning Late Pleistocene through Holocene. Early Holocene macrofossils from these middens are indicative of higher summer moister than present, as well as higher temperature. This changes around 4000 yr BP, with indications of drier conditions. Frost-sensitive taxa first appear in mid to late Holocene. Interesting that plant migration into the area continues into the late Holocene. Suggests that some plants are migrating from Pleistocene refugia in Mexico. (05/12/2007).

Cummings, L. S., and K. Puseman 1992
Pollen, Phytolith, Parasite, and Macrofloral Analysis of Coprolites from Room 21 in Step House (5MV1285), Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. Mesa Verde National Park, Mesa Verde, Colorado, USA Manuscript on file with National Park Service, Mesa Verde National Park.

Dittmar, K., and W. R. Teegen 2000
Fasciola hepatica Eggs in a 4500 Year Old Skeleton from Germany. In Paleopathology Association 27th Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 6.
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003). (06/06/2008).

Donald, C. R. 1984
Examination of the Archaeological Samples Supplied by Barry J. Kemp from Tell el-Amarna Site. In Amarna Reports I, edited by B. J. Kemp, pp. 56-58. Egypt Exploration Society, London, England, UK.
Reported finding of parasite eggs of Ascaris and Taenia in coprolites from animal pens at the Workmen's Village, in Egypt. Cited by Panagiotakopulu (1999).

Elias, S. A. 1988
Late Quaternary Insect Fossils from Packrat Middens in Northern Mexico: Preliminary Results from the Puerto de Vantanillas Site, Coahuila. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Tenth Biennial Meeting. p. 67. June 6-8, 1988, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.
Midden sites span 12,700 yr BP to present. Reports on one site (of eighteen) examined for arthropods. Recovered more than 60 taxa, mostly beetles, including ground beetles and dung beetles. Research will focus on taphonomy of subfossil insect remains in middens. (13/12/2007).

Fry, G. F., and H. J. Hall 1973
The Analysis of Human Coprolites from Inscription House. Report on file, Western Archaeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Gardner, S. I., and K. Clary 1987
Helminth Parasites of Anasazi Period Coprolites from Bighorn Sheep Ruin (42SA1563), Canyonlands National Park, Utah. Unpublished manuscript on file. Midwest Archaeological Centre, National Park Service, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.

Goodman, J. D. 1990
Human Coprolites from Archaeological Site CA-Riv-3793. In Archaeological Investigations at CA-Riv-3793, Located North of Indio in Central Riverside County, California, edited by J. D. Goodman and B. S. Arkush, pp. ??-?? Report on file, Eastern Archaeological Information Center, University of California, Riverside, California, USA.
Analysis of about half-a-dozen coprolite specimens (Mark Sutton, pers. comm., 29/09/2000).

Greig, J. 1988
The Plant Remains. In Excavations at 12 Watergate Street in 1985: Roman Headquarters Building to Medieval Row, edited by S. Ward. Grosvenor Museum Archaeological Excavation and Survey Reports 5. City Council, Chester, UK.
Cited in Greig (1994). (17/04/2009).

Hall, S. A. 1986
Plant Macrofossils from Wood Rat Middens: Vegetation or Flora? In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Ninth Biennial Meeting. p. 136. Processes and Environments at Past and Present Glacier Margins. June 2-4, 1986, University of Illinois-Champaign, Urbana.
Hall states that vegetation reconstructions based on vegetation remains from woodrat middens do not agree with those from pollen records and other palaeoenvironmental indicators. Points out that wood rats middens that have been preserved tend to be in areas (dry escarpments) that have vegetation markedly different from surrounding areas. Wonders how far reconstructions from these distinctively different sites can reflect the surrounding regional vegetation pattern. Suggests that pollen studies from midden material might help to resolve the question of the representativeness of the plant macroremains. These comments elicited a response from Spaulding (1990).

Harris, A. H. 1976
Discussion: The Biota of the Hot Deserts of North America During the Last Glaciation: The Packrat Midden Record. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting. pp. 68-69. Hot and Cold Deserts During the Last Glaciation. October 9 and 10, 1976, Arizona State University, Tempe.
Points out some inconsistencies between packrat midden records and faunal remain. Distribution of faunal remains suggest much greater displacement in Ice Age conditions, often by several hundred kilometers. Questions whether midden records adequately capture spectrum of changes. (02/12/2007).

Hebda, R. J., and B. G. Warner 1988
Pollen and Macroscopic Plant Remains from Fossil Woodrat (Neotoma cinerea) Middens in Canada. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Tenth Biennial Meeting. p. 74. June 6-8, 1988, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts.
Reviews occurrence of woodrats in western Canada. Preliminary report on midden studies, pollen and plant macrofossils, at two sites in interior British Columbia: Oregon Jack Creek and Bull Canyon. Midden at Oregon Jack Creek about a thousand years old. At Bull Canyon, midden about 700 years old. All taxa identified appear to be expected for the area. Middens may provide additional palaeocological information for dry interior of British Columbia. (13/12/2007).

Heizer, R. F. 1966
Analysis of Human Coprolites from a Dry Nevada Cave. In Abstracts of Papers, 35th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Berkeley, California, USA.

Hubbard, Emily 2013
Chalcolithic Use of Dung as Fuel: Evidence from Tel Tsaf, Israel. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology 78th Annual Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Abstracts of SAA 78th Annual Meeting, p. 206.
Chalcolithic interval spans about 5200 to 3600 BC. Microscopic analysis of material from roasting pits yielded phytoliths and dung spherulites. Dung was used as fuel for ovens. Dung considered a secondary useful product from domestic animals. (01/May/2013)

Jansen, J., and J. H. Boersma 1982
Helminth Infection in Medieval Amsterdam and Utrecht. Papers on Paleopathology, 4th European Members Meeting, Middelburg, Antwerpen 2:6-7.
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003) (06/06/2008).

Jansen Jr, J., and H. J. Over 1966
Observations on Helminth Infection in a Roman Army-Camp. Proceedings 1st International Congress of Parasitology, Roma, Italy, 1964 .
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003) (06/06/2008).

Jeske, Robert, and Roberta Boczkiewicz 2013
Canine Scavenging and Archaeological Site Formation: An Experiment with the Milwaukee County Zoo Wolf Pack. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology 78th Annual Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Abstracts of the SAA 78th Annual Meeting, p. 216.
Controlled feeding experiments on wolves at Milwaukee County Zoo. First, five wolves fed boneless meat, then fed with small animals as food. Scats collected, bone remains extracted and examined for damage, acid etching etc. Some fully articulated material recovered, such as partial vertebral column or feet. Some bones completed destroyed by digestion. (01/May/2013)

Jones, A. K. G. 1982
Recent Finds of Intestinal Parasite Ova at York, England. In Papers on Paleopathology, 4th European Members Meeting, Middelburg, Antwerpen, pp. 7.
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003) (06/06/2008).

Kelso, G. K., and A. M. Solomon 1976
Pollen Analysis of Human Coprolites: Implications of Experimental Evidence From Modern Fecal Samples. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting. p. 142. Hot and Cold Deserts During the Last Glaciation. October 9 and 10, 1976, Arizona State University, Tempe.
Briefly report some experimental work, based on two people ingesting known amounts of specific pollen types with meals, and tracking the pollens' abundance and timing of appearance in feces. Cited by Kelso and Solomon (2006). (02/12/2007).

Kenward, Harry 2000
Assessment of insect remains from a sample from the Flodden Hill Rectilinear Enclosure. Environmental Archaeology Unit, Department of Biology, University of York, York, England, UK. 4 pages.
Analysis of a sediment sample from a ditch. Feature is likely of Romano-British age. Insect remains were well-preserved. Insects indicate both open (grassland) and water environments. Aquatic taxa included: Daphnia and Cladocera. Open ground taxa included chafer (Phyllopertha horticola), click beetles (elaterids), and Dascillus cervinus (Orchid beetle). Many dung beetles including Aphodius prodromus and A. contaminatus. Also decomposer beetles well-represented (seven taxa). Also ground beetles (such as Pterostichus melanarius). Most signiciant find was Nettlebug (Heterogaster urticae), possibly indicative of warmer temperatures in northern England. (01/Mar/2013)

Kenward, H., and J. Carrott 2001
Technical Report: Invertebrate Remains from Two Samples from Excavations at Broadgate, London (Sitecode: BGA90). Reports from the Environmental Archaeology Unit, York 2001/32. Environmental Archaeology Unit, Department of Biology, University of York, York, England, UK. 10 pages.
Reports on analysis of two samples (processed) and some unprocessed samples recovered from the excavation of a pit dated to 16th to 17th century AD. Both processed samples consisted predominantly of puparia of the fly Thoracochaeta zosterae. Also found parasite eggs of Trichuris (whipworm), and one sample yielded Ascaris (maw worm) eggs. Some plant remains, including apple and grape pips. Samples, most likely of human origin, were faeces. (05/04/2009).

Lindquist, C. A., and P. L. Fall 1987
Fossil Hyrax Middens from the Middle East - A New Source of Palaeobotanical Evidence. In INQUA 12th International Congress, July 1987, Program with Abstracts. p. 212. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Cited in Scott and Bousman (1990).

Lindsay, L. W. 1983
Pollen Analysis of Antelope Cave Deposits and Coprolite Samples. In An Archaeological and Geological Assessment of Antelope Cave in Mojave County, Northwestern Arizona, edited by J. Janetski and M. J. Hall. Special Report, Cultural Resource Management Services Department Anthropology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

Maher Jr, L. J. 1992
Palynology of Bat Guano May Provide a Useful Climate Record. In 8th International Palynological Congress, Aix-en-Provence, France, Programs and Abstracts. p. 96.
Cited by Leroy and Simms (2006). (27/12/2007).

McAndrews, J. H., and C. E. Turton 2005
The Goosing of Crawford Lake with Prehistoric Corn Pollen. CAP Newsletter 28(1):5-7.
Reports the occurrence of nodules in sediments of Crawford Lake, contemporaneous with the Iroquois farming interval, beginning about 1280 AD. Nodules are thought to be pellets (dung) from Canada geese, that were feeding on the cultivated fields. Consider that this is the likely source of the corn pollen that has been identified in pollen analysis of the lake sediments. (29/12/2007).

Mead, J. I. 1982
Packrat Middens and Holocene Environments in the Pryor Mts, Montana. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Seventh Biennial Conference. p. 137. Character and Timing of Rapid Environmental and Climatic Changes. June 28-30, 1982, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Reports on Holocene-aged packrat middens. Early Holocene assemblages include macrofossils of Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper) and dung from Ochotona princeps (Pika). Neither taxon lives in Pryor Mountains today. Suggests that the assemblage may represent remnant Late Pleistocene community. (04/12/2007).

Mead, J. I. 1986
Quaternary Records of Pika, Ochotona, in North America. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Ninth Biennial Meeting. p. 150. Processes and Environments at Past and Present Glacier Margins. June 2-4, 1986, University of Illinois-Champaign, Urbana.
In some situations, packrat middens can preserve pika pellets too. Radiocarbon dates show that pika lived a lower elevations than where now found until about 6800 yr BP. Also found evidence east of continental divide in areas that do not contain talus slopes, supposedly required habitat for the species today. Suggests that habitat preferences have changed. May have been able to expand beyond boulder slopes during intervals of cooler summer climates. (10/12/2007).

Mead, J. I., and A. M. Phillips III 1978
The Late Pleistocene Flora and Fauna From Vulture Cave, Grand Canyon, Arizona. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Fifth Biennial Meeting. pp. 223. The Ice-Free Corridor and Peopling the New World. September 2-4, 1978, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta.
Provides some preliminary results on the work at this cave, based on analysis of packrat middens. Radiocarbon dates show that juniper was in vicinity of cave between about 29,800 to 13,800 yr BP. Indicates a depression of the woodland zone by about 900 m in late Pleistocene. Evidence is consistent with other records from the area. Also reports the occurrence of more than 20 species of animals identified from the cave. (02/12/2007).

Mitchell, P. D., and E. Stern 2000
Parasitic Intestinal Helminth Ova from Latrines of the 13th Century Crusader Hospital of St John in Acre, Israel. In Paleopathology Association 13th Biennial European Members Meeting, Chieti, pp. 21-22.
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003) (06/06/2008).

Mitchell, P. D., and E. Stern 2001
Parasitic Intestinal Helminth Ova from Latrines of the 13th Century Crusader Hospital of St John in Acre, Israel. In Procedings of the XIIIth European Meeting of the Paeopathology Association, Edigraftal, Teramo, Chieti, Italy, edited by M. La Verghetta and L. Capasso, pp. 207-213.
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003) (06/06/2008).

Park, G. S. 1969
Chemical Analysis in Archaeology: with Special Reference to the Location of Material for Faecal Analysis. Unpublished manuscript. Anthropology Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Cited by Calder (1977).

Phillips III, A. M. 1976
Packrats, Plants, and the Pleistocene in the Lower Grand Canyon of Arizona. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting. pp. 70-71. Hot and Cold Deserts During the Last Glaciation. October 9 and 10, 1976, Arizona State University, Tempe.
Reviews work in Rampart Cave area. Notes occurrence of 48 packrat middens within 4 km of the cave. Middens record about 1000 m elevational depression of juniper woodland during late Pleistocene. Canyon was probably wetter and mostly likely cooler in summer. Ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shatense) was absent from Rampart Cave between about 24,000 and 14,000 yr BP, during which time packrat middens accumulated. Middens were buried by sloth dung when the sloths returned. Four vegetation regimes between 30,000 and 8,500 yr BP recorded in middens, all characterised by woodland taxa. (02/12/2007).

Reinhard, K. J. 1983
Analysis of Human and Non-Human Coprolites from Antelope House, 1983. Report on file. Western Archaeological and Conservation Centre, National Park Service, Tucson, Arizona, USA.
Cited by Reinhard (1988).

Reinhard, K. J., and A. C. Aufderheide 1990
Diphyllobothriasis in Prehistoric Chile and Peru: Adaptive Radiation of a Helminth Species to Native American Populations. In Papers on Paleopathology, 8th European Members Meeting, Cambridge, pp. 18.
Cited in Gonçalves et al. (2003) (06/06/2008).

Reinhard, K. J., and S. V. Barnum 1991
Ancient Parasitology of Coastal Peru. Paper presented at the 90th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Chicago. .
Cited by Reinhard and Bryant (1992).

Reinhard, K. J., K. Sandness, M. Ghazi, and J. Dendy n.d.
Dietary Analysis of Corporeal Remains: Coprolites and Bone Chemistry. Unpublished report of dietary analyses of Chiribaya Culture mummies from the Moquegua Valley, Peru.
Cited in Reinhard et al. (2007). States there that the manuscript is available on request from Reinhard. (24/03/2007).

Renfrew, J. 1984
Botanical Report. In Amarna Reports I, edited by B. J. Kemp, pp. 182. Egypt Exploration Society, London, England, UK.
Reported finding of plant remains, mainly of grains and cereals, in coprolites from animal pens at the Workmen's Village, in Egypt. Cited by Panagiotakopulu (1999).

Rhode, D. 1998
Terminal Wisconsin Vegetation in the Central Baja California Peninsula: A Record of California Juniper and Chaparral Taxa. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Fifteenth Biennial Meeting. p. 146. Northern Hemisphere-Southern Hemisphere Interconnections. September 5-7, 1998, Puerto Vallarta, México.
Packrat midden dated about 10,200 C14 yr BP and yielded remains of California juniper (Juniperus californica), a plant that does not occur in this mountain area today. Shows a southern range extension of this taxon in the late Pleistocene (17/12/2007).

Rosen, Arlene, Ella Reiczyk and Steve Rosen 2013
Paleoecology of Early Pastoralism in the Negev: Phytolith Tales from the Dung. Paper presented at the Society for American Archaeology 78th Annual Meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. Abstracts from the SAA 78th Annnual Meeting, p. 358.
Rockshelters in the Negev Desert were used for stabling goats from about 6,000 BC. Examined phytoliths preserved in dung layers. Found that Neolithic herders pastured their animals in the rockshelters in winter, Bronze Age herders in the summer. Both used moist environments, and may have used reeds (Phragmites) as fodder. (01/May/2013)

Scott, L. 1989
Pollen Analysis and Palaeoenvironmental Significance of Quaternary Faecal Deposits in Africa. Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Environmental Quality and Ecosystem Stability, Jerusalem.
Cited by Scott and Bousman (1990).

Spaulding, W. G. 1982
Processes and Rates of Change in the Arid West. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Seventh Biennial Conference. pp. 22-24. Character and Timing of Rapid Environmental and Climatic Changes. June 28-30, 1982, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Notes that small changes in precipitation especially may have great impacts on vegetation in desert areas. Points out that many packrat middens have now been examined, enough to form a temporal sequence for areas of arid SW US, rather than simply "point" records. Notes discrepancies between pollen records from alluvial sequences and macros records from packrat middens. Packrat middens indicate reduction in pinyon-juniper woodland in late Holocene, possibly related to Anasazi occupation, whereas pollen records show no significant changes over last 7,000 years. Attempts now being made to quantify occurrences of taxa in midden records, rather than simple presence/absence data. Notes that macrofossil records indicate that most vegetation shifts are time transgressive in arid SW US. Present ecotonal areas may provide especially sensitive records of change. (03/12/2007).

Spaulding, W. G. 1984
Paleoecological Indicators of Seasonal Climatic Variations in the American West Since 18,000 B.P. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Eighth Biennial Meeting. pp. 121-123. Seasonal Climatic Responses in the Quaternary. August 13-15, 1984, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Summarizes the present characteristics (vegetation and climate) of modern deserts, especially with respect to seasonality. Pollen and macrofossils from packrat middens provide information on climate conditions of the past. Summarizes some of the findings from this research, showing the regional differences, especially in terms of precipitation in the early Holocene. Notes the differencies in the records from the Colorado River valley, such as the persisence of woodland in the valley when the surrounding uplands, notably the Mojave Desert, was already desert scrub by about 11,000 yr BP. Valley acts to channel or funnel moister maritime air to the interior. (05/12/2007).

Stapleton, A. M. 1969
The Survival of Organic Residues After Human Consumption. Unpublished manuscript. Anthropology Department, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Cited by Calder (1977) and Horrocks et al. (2003).

St John Sweeting, R. S., and K. A. Morris 1990
Seed Transmission Through the Digestive Tract of the Horse. In Proceedings of the 9th Australian Weeds Conference, 6-10 August 1990, pp. 137-139. Weed Management Society of Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
Cited in Wells and Lauenroth (2007). (23/12/2007).

Van Devender, T. R. 1976
The Biota of the Hot Deserts of North America During the Last Glaciation: The Packrat Midden Record. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Abstracts of the Fourth Biennial Meeting. pp. 62-67. Hot and Cold Deserts During the Last Glaciation. October 9 and 10, 1976, Arizona State University, Tempe.
Reviews packrat midden studies to date. Notes that records indicate that many hot desert areas formerly supported woodland, up until early Holocene and show lowering of vegetation zones in mountain areas in Ice Ages. Suggests that vegetation changes recorded by packrat middens do not necessarily indicate major climate shifts or major displacement of plant species. (02/12/2007).

Van Devender, T. R. 1982
Rates of Late Quaternary Vegetation Changes. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Seventh Biennial Conference. pp. 26-27. Character and Timing of Rapid Environmental and Climatic Changes. June 28-30, 1982, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Packrat middens provide evidence of vegetation changes. At the end of Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene, these changes seem to have been relatively rapid, though perhaps lagged until after ice-sheet melting further north allowed modification of circulation patterns, especially storm tracks emanating from the Pacific. In southwest, plants didn't have to migrate such long distances as, for instance, in central and eastern US. Shifts were more with respect to elevation than distance. (04/12/2007).

Van Devender, T. R. 1984
Seasonality and the Summer Monsoon: Packrat Midden Sequences from the Chihuahuan Desert. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Eighth Biennial Meeting. p. 132. Seasonal Climatic Responses in the Quaternary. August 13-15, 1984, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.
Reports results from a study of middens in a latitudinal transect in the northen Chihuahuan Desert. Full-glacial vegetation was characterized by pinyon-juniper-oak woodland. Postglacial shows latitudinal variation in effects of summer monsoonal precipitation, reflecting position of storm tracks. Maximum warmth and dryness in mid-Holocene (8,000 to 4,000 yr BP), with modern desert communities established thereafter. Notes that maximum extent of deserts was in late Holocene. (10/12/2007).

Warnock, P., K. Reinhard, and M. Pendleton 1990
Analysis of Deep Feature Soils, the Meadows Site, Philadelphia, PA. Contract report on file. Louis Berger and Associates Ltd, East Orange, New Jersey, USA.
Cited by Warnock and Reinhard (1992).

Williams-Dean, G. 1975
Preliminary Parasitological Examination of Coprolites from Hinds Cave, Texas. Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
Cited in Bryant and Dean (2006). (25/03/2008).

Yohe II, R. M. 1990
Appendix B: An Analysis of Human Coprolite Remains from Site CA-RIV-3682. In Archaeological Investigations at Five Sites Located at One Eleven La Quinta Center in the City of La Quinta, Central Riverside County, California, edited by J. D. Goodman and B. S. Arkush. Report on file, Eastern Archaeological Information Center, University of California, Riverside, California, USA.

Number of citations: 57


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 11
Conference Abstracts and Grey Literature


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