List of Taxa Mentioned in the Citations

Plants

TaxonCommon nameFamilyComments
Abies albaSilver firPinaceaeTree, central European mountains
Acacia-Fabaceae-
Acacia constrictaWhitethorn acaciaFabaceaeDesert shrub or small tree, native to SW USA and Mexico
Acacia greggiiCatclaw acaciaFabaceaeDesert shrub
Acacia roemerianaRoundflower catclawFabaceaeDesert shrub
AcorusSweetflagAraceaeWetlands, lakesides, streambanks
Aframomum meleguetaMelegueta pepper, Paradise grainsZingiberaceaeSpice. Coastal areas of west Africa
AgaveAgave, Century plant, MagueyAgavaceae-
Agave lecheguillaLecheguillaAgavaceaeEndemic to Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts, SW USA
Agave utahensisUtah AgaveAgavaceaeNative to SW USA
AgropyronWheatgrassPoaceae-
Agrostemma githagoCorncockleCaryophyllaceaeSeeds are poisonous, common weed of cornfields
Allenrolfea occidentalisIodine bush, Pickleweed, Burro weedChenopodiaceaeShrub. Halophyte, occurs in alkaline flats, and along the margin of salt lakes
Allium-LiliaceaeIncludes leeks and onions
Alnus glutinosaBlack alderBetulaceaeTree, native to Europe and Scandinavia
AmaranthaceaeAmaranth family--
AmaranthusAmaranth, PigweedAmaranthaceae-
Amaranthus retroflexusRedroot pigweedAmaranthaceaeCommon weed
AmaryllidaceaeAmaryllis family--
Ambrosia trifidaGiant ragweedAsteraceae-
AmelanchierServiceberryRosaceaeSmall tree or shrub
AnacardiaceaeCashew family--
Anacardium-AnacardiaceaeCashew genus
Anethum graveolensDillApiaceaeCulinary herb
Anthospermum-RubiaceaeShrub, South Africa
Anthriscus cerefoliumChervilApiaceaeCulinary herb
Apium graveolensCeleryApiaceaeCulinary herb, vegetable
ApocynumDogbane, Indian hempApocynaceaeSource of fibre
Aristida wrightiiThree-awnPoaceaeSpeargrass or Needlegrass
Armoracia rusticanaHorseradishCruciferae-
ArtemisiaSage, SagebrushAsteraceae-
Artemisia tridentataSagebrush, Big sagebrushAsteraceae-
AsteraceaeSunflower family--
AtriplexSaltbushChenopodiaceaeDesert shrub
Atriplex canescens, Founr-winged saltbush, SaltbushChenopodiaceaeShrub
Atriplex confertilifoliaSaltbushChenopodiaceae-
AvenaOatsPoaceae-
Avena strigosaBlack oatsPoaceae-
Barbarea vulgarisWinter cressCruciferae-
Berberis trifoliataAlgeritaBerberidaceae-
Betula occidentalisWater birchBetulaceaeTree or shrub, western North America
Bistorta viviparaAlpine bistortPolygonaceae-
Borreria-Rubiaceae-
Brassica nigraBlack mustardBrassicaceaeCulinary spice
BrassicaceaeMustard family--
Bromus rubensBrome grassPoaceae-
Buddleja salviifoliaSagewoodBuddlejaceaeShrub or small tree, South Africa
CactaceaeCactus family--
Calendula officinalisMarigoldAsteraceae-
CanavaliaJack-beanFabaceae-
CapparalesCaper order--
Capparis spinosaCaperCapparidaceaeeastern Mediterranean
Capsella bursa-pastorisShepherd's PurseBrassicaceaeNative to Europe, frequently found as a weed in other places
CapsicumPepper, ChiliSolanaceaeCulinary spice
CarexSedgeCyperaceae-
Carex lasiocarpaSedgeCyperaceae-
Carex lenticularisSedgeCyperaceae-
Carum carviCarawayApiaceaeCulinary spice
Carthamus tinctoriusSafflowerAsteraceaeUsed for dye, and an important souce of vegetable oil
CaryaHickoryJuglandaceaeTree, eastern North America
CaryophyllaceaePink family--
CanavaliaBeanFabaceae-
Cassiope tetragonaWhite heather, Bell-heatherEricaceaeEvergreen dwarf shrub
CastaneaChestnutFagaceaeTree
CeibaSilk-cotton treeMalvaceaeTree genus
CeltisHackberryUlmaceaeTree
CerealiacerealsPoaceae-
CerastiumChickweedCaryophyllaceae-
Chelidonium majusCelandinePapaverceae-
ChenopodiaceaeGoosefoot family--
ChenopodiumChenopod, GoosefootChenopodiaceae-
Chenopodium albumFat henChenopodiaceae-
Chenopodium berlandieri-Chenopodiaceae-
Chenopodium berlandieri ssp. jonesianum-ChenopodiaceaeDomesticated form of chenopod
Chenopodium hybridumMaple-leaved goosefootChenopodiaceae-
Cistus-CistaceaeShrubs
Cistus ladaniferGum rockroseCistaceaeShrub, western Mediterranean region, especially Spain
CleomeBeeweedCapparidaceae-
CompositaeDaisy family-Now obsolete, superceded by Asteraceae
Conium maculatumPoison hemlockApiaceae-
Coriandrum sativumCorianderApiaceaeCulinary herb
Coriaria arborataTutuCoriaceaeNew Zealand, small tree
Corylus avellanaHazel, European filbert, European hazelnut, CobnutBetulaceaeLarge shrub or small tree. Europe and western Asia
Cowania mexicanaCliffroseRosaceaeCurrent name Purshia mexicana
CruciferaeMustard family--
Cryptantha-Boraginaceae-
CucurbitaSquashCucurbitaceae-
Cucurbita pepoSquash, Pepo gourdCucurbitaceae-
CupressaceaeCypress family--
Cyathea medullarisMamaku, Black tree fernCyatheaceaeNew Zealand
CyperaceaeSedge family--
Dalea-Fabaceae-
DasylirionSotolAgavaceae-
Dasylirion leiophyllumSmooth sotolAgavaceae-
DaturaThorn-appleSolanaceaeHallucinogenic plants
Diospyros virginiaPersimmonEbenaceaeTree, North America
Distichilis-Poaceae-
Elymus-Poaceae-
Elytropappus-Asteraceae-
EmpetrumCrowberryEmpetraceae-
Empetrum nigrumCrowberryEmpetraceaeDwarf evergreen shrub
EphedraMormon teaEphedraceaeDesert shrub
Ephedra nevadensisNevada mormon teaEphedraceaeDesert shrub
Ephedra torreyanaMormon teaEphedraceaeDesert shrub
Ephedra viridisMormon teaEphedraceaeDesert shrub
EucalyptusEucalyptus, Gum treeMyrtaceaeMost are endemic to Australia
Euphorbia lathyris-Euphorbiaceae-
FabaceaeLegume family--
FagaceaeOak family--
Fagopyrum esculentumBuckwheatPolygonaceae-
FagusBeechFagaceaeTree
FestucaFescuePoaceae-
FicusFigMoraceae-
Ficus caricaFigMoraceaeWestern Asia and eastern Mediterranean
Foeniculum vulgareFennelApiaceaeCulinary herb
FouquieriaceaeOcotillo family--
FouquieriaOcotilloFouquieriaceaeDesert plants
FragariaStrawberryRosaceae-
Fragaria vescaStrawberryRosaceae-
Fragaria virginianaStrawberryRosaceae-
Franseria dumosaBurroweed, Desert ragweedAsteraceaeSynonym for Ambrosia dumosa
FraxinusAshOleaceaeDeciduous tree
Fuschia excorticataKoniniOnagraceaeNew Zealand, tree
GossypiumCottonMalvaceae-
GramineaeGrass family-Now obsolete, superceded by Poaceae
Gutierrezia-Asteraceae-
HederaIvyAraliaceaeClimbing plant, evergreen
HelianthusSunflowerAsteraceae-
Helianthus annuusSunflowerAsteraceae-
Hordeum vulgareBarleyPoaceaeCereal crop, domesticated in Indian subcontinent
Humulus lupulusHopsCannabinaceaeUsed for beer making
HypericumSt. John's-wortClusiaceae-
IlexHollyAquifoliaceaeTree or Shrub
Ilex aquifoliumEuropean HollyAquifoliaceaeTree or Shrub
Ipomoea batatasSweet potato, YamConvolvulaceae-
IridaceaeIris family--
Iva annuaSumpweed, MarshelderAsteraceae-
Juglans regiaEnglish walnut, Persian walnutJuglandaceaeTree
Junellia-Verbenaceae-
JuniperusJuniperCupressaceaeSmall trees or shrubs
Juniperus communisDwarf juniper, Common juniperCupressaceaeShrub, sometimes tree
Juniperus horizontalisCreeping juniperCupressaceaeShrub
Juniperus monospermaDesert juniper, One-seed juniperCupressaceaeTree, shrub. SW US and northern Mexico
Juniperus osteospermaUtah juniperCupressaceae-
Juniperus pinchotiiRedberry juniperCupressaceaeSmall tree or shrub
Juniperus scopulorumRocky Mountain juniperCupressaceae-
Lactuceae--Tribe within the Asteraceae
Lagenaria sicerariaBottle gourdCucurbitaceaeFruit is used as a container
LamiaceaeMint family-formerly Labiatae
LamialesMint order--
LarixLarchPinaceaeTree, deciduous conifers
LappulaStickseedBoraginaceae-
Larrea-ZygophyllaceaeEvergreen desert shrubs
Larrea divaricataCreosote bush, ChapparalZygophyllaceaeEvergreen desert shrub
Lathyrus pratensisMeadow vetchlingFabaceaeNative to Europe and Asia
Lemaireocereus-Cactaceaenative to Mexico and southern USA
Leptodactylon-Polemoniaceae-
LeucaenaLead treeMimosaceae-
Leucosidea sericeaOldwoodRoseaceaeSmall tree, South Africa
LepidiumPepper grassBrassicaceae-
Liguliflorae--Subfamily of the Compositae
LiliaceaeLily family--
Liliales--Plant order that includes lilies
LiliaceaeLily family--
LinumFlaxLinaceaeMajor source of fibre for textiles
LoliumRyegrassPoaceaeNative to Europe, Asia, and north Africa
Lycopersicon esculentumTomatoSolanaceae-
Malus domesticaAppleRosaceaeTree
MalvaceaeMallow family--
Mentzelia-Loasaceae-
Mespilus germanicaMedlarRosaceaeTree
Montia lamprospermaBlinks, Miner's lettuce, Blinking chickweedPortulacaceae -
MoraceaeMulberry family--
Muhlenbergia porteriMuhlyPoaceae
Mulinum-ApiaceaeFound in Chile
Myrica-MyricaceaeOccurs in South Africa. Small tree.
Myristica fragransMace, NutmegMyristicaceaeCulinary spice
MyrsineMyrtleMyrsinaceae Shrub, Africa and Asia
Nasturtium officinaleWatercressBrassicaceaeAquatic plant
Naussavia--Found in Chile
Neckera complanata-NeckeraceaeMoss. Terrestrial, woodland, grows on rocks and tree trunks
NicotianaTobaccoSolanaceae-
NothofagusSouthern Beech NothofagaceaeConfined to the southern hemisphere
Nyssa sylvaticaBlack gumNyssaceaeTree, North America
OleaOliveOleaceaeMediterranean. Important food and source of oil
OpuntiaPrickly pear cactusCactaceae-
Opuntia macrocentraBlack-spined prickly pear cactusCactaceae-
Opuntia polyacanthaPrickly pear cactusCactaceae-
Oryza sativaRicePoaceae-
OryzopsisIndian rice grassPoaceae-
Oryzopsis hymenoidesIndian rice grassPoaceae-
Ostrya carpinifoliaHophornbeamBetulaceaeTree
Oxyria digynaMountain sorrel, Alpine sorrelPolygonaceae-
Panicum-Poaceae-
Panicum dichotomiflorum-Poaceae-
Papaver dahlianumSvalbard poppyPapaveraceae-
Papaver somniferumOpium poppyPapaveraceae-
PedicularisLousewortOrobanchaceae
Perezia-AsteraceaeFound in Chile
Phalaris carolinianaMaygrassPoaceae-
PhaseolusGreen beans, Lima beansFabaceaeNew World taxon
Phaseolus vulgarisGreen beans, Lima beansFabaceaeNew World taxon
Phragmites-Poaceae-
Phragmites communusCommon reedPoaceae-
Picea pungensBlue sprucePinaceaeTree
Pimpinella anisumAniseedApiaceae-
PinusPinePinaceaeTree, conifer
Pinus cembroidesMexican pinyon pinePinaceaeTree, conifer. Texas, southern USA, and Mexico
Pinus centroides remotaPinyon pinePinaceaeTree, conifer. Now referred to Pinus edulis
Pinus edulisPinyon pine, Colorado pinyonPinaceaeTree
Pinus flexilisLimber pinePinaceaeTree
Pinus monophyllaSingleleaf pinyon pinePinaceaeTree. Western North America
Pinus ponderosaPonderosa pinePinaceaeTree
Piper nigrumPepperPiperaceaeCulinary spice
PlatanusPlane tree, SycamorePlatanaceae-
PlatyopuntiaCactus, Prickly-pearCactaceaeNorth America
Pisum sativumField peaFabaceaeOld World taxon
PoaceaeGrass family--
Poa pratensisKentucky bluegrassPoaceae-
PolygonumKnotweedPolygonceae-
Polygonum aviculareCommon knotweedPolygonceae-
Polygonum erectumErect knotweedPolygonceae-
PopulusPoplarSalicaceae-
PortulacaPurslanePortulacaceae-
ProsopisMesquiteFabaceae-
Prosopis julifloraMesquiteFabaceaeDesert shrub
PotentillaCinquefoilRosaceae-
PrunusPlum, CherryRosaceae-
Prunus aviumWild cherry, Gean, MazzardRosaceaeTree. Europe, naturalized in eastern North America
Prunus cerasusSour cherryRosaceae-
Prunus domestica ssp. insititiaDamson, BullaceRosaceaeTree
Prunus masCornelian cherryRosaceaeTree
Prunus persicaPeachRosaceaeTree, Old World
Prunus serotinaBlack cherry, Rum cherryRosaceaeTree, sometimes shrub. Eastern US and SE Canada
Prunus spinosaSloeRosaceae-
Pseudotsuga menziesiiDouglas firPinaceaeTree, western North America
PteridiumBrackenDennstaedtiaceae-
Pteridium aquilinumBrackenDennstaedtiaceae-
Pteridium esculentumFern root, Rarauhe bracken, Bracken fernDennstaedtiaceaeNew Zealand, eastern Australia, Tasmania. Fern
Pyrus communisPearRosaceaeTree. Europe
QuercusOakFagaceaeTree
Quercus gambelliiGambel oakFagaceae-
Quercus griseaGrey oakFagaceae-
Quercus pungensSandpaper oak, Shubby live-oakFagaceae-
Quercus suberCork oakFagaceae-
Ranunculus sulphureusSulphur buttercupRanunculaceae-
Reseda luteolaWeld, Dyer's broom, Wild woadResedaceaePlant yields a yellow dye
Ribes nigrumBlack currantGrossulariaceaeShrub
Ribes rubrumRed currantGrossulariaceaeShrub
RhamnaceaeBuckthorn family--
RhanmusBuckthornRhamnaceaeShrub or small tree
RhusSumacAnacardiaceaeTree
Rhytidiadelphus squarrosusSpringy turf moss HylocomiaceaeMeadows and lawns
Rorippa islandicaIceland watercress, Marsh yellow cressBrassicaceae-
RosaRoseRosaceaeShrub
RosaceaeRose family-Trees or shrubs
RubusRaspberry, BlackberryRosaceaeShrub
Rubus fruticosaBlackberryRosaceaeShrub
Rubus idaeusRaspberryRosaceae-
Rumex pseudoalpinusMonk's rhubarbPolygonaceae-
SagerentiaMock BuckthornRhamnaceaeShrub or small tree
SalicorniaSamphireChenopodiaceaeSalt tolerant plants, often of coastal marshes or around saline lake margins
Salicornia pacifica-Chenopodiaceae-
Salicornia perennisGlasswort, PickleweedChenopodiaceae-
Salicornia rubraRed samphireChenopodiaceae-
SalixWillowSalicaeaeTrees or shrubs
SambucusElderberryCaprifoliaceaeShrub or small tree
Saxifraga oppositifoliaPurple saxifrage, Purple mountain saxifrageSaxifragaceae-
SclerocactusUtah cactusCactaceae-
ScirpusBulrushCyperaceaeWetlands
Scirpus paludosusAlkali bulrushCyperaceae-
SecaleRyePoaceae-
Secale cerealeRyePoaceae-
Sequoiadendron giganteumGiant Sequoia, WellingtoniaCupressaceaeExtremely large trees, native to western US
SetariaMilletPoaceae-
Setaria geniculataFoxtail milletPoaceae-
SidaPrickly mallowMalvaceae-
SolanaceaeNightshade family--
SolanumNightshadeSolanaceae-
Solanum lycopersicumTomatoSolanaceae-
SonchusSow thistleAsteraceae-
Sonchus kirkiiNew Zealand sow thistle, puhaAsteraceae-
Sonchus littoralisNew Zealand sow thistle, puwhaAsteraceae-
Sorbus acupariaRowan, Mountain ash, European mountain ashRosaceaeTree
Spergula arvensisCorn spurreyCaryophyllaceae-
SphaeralceaGlobemallowMalvaceaeDesert shrub
Sphaeralcea ambiguaDesert globemallowMalvaceaeDesert shrub
Sphagnum imbricatumBog mossSphagnaceaeNow considered a complex of three species, including S. austinii and S. affine.
SporobolusDropseedPoaceae-
Stellaria medeaCommon chickweedCaryophyllaceae-
StoebeCat's tail snakebushAsteraceaeOccurs in South Africa
SymphoricarposWolfberry, SnowberryCaprifoliaceaeShrub
Sueda-Chenopodiaceae-
Terminalia-CombretaceaeLarge trees, tropics
Thlapsi arvensePennycressBrassicaceaeA common weed
TridensTridensPoaceaeA type of bunchgrass
Triglochin maritimaSeaside arrowgrass, Arrow-grassJuncaginaceae-
TriticumWheatPoaceae-
Triticum dicoccumEmmerPoaceaeCereal crop, originally domesticated in Near East
Triticum monococcumWheatPoaceaeCereal crop, originally domesticated in Near East, possibly southern Turkey
Tsuga heterophyllaWestern HemlockPinaceaecoastal northwest North America
TyphaCattailTyphaceaeWetlands
Typha australisCattail, RaupoTyphaceaeNew Zealand
Typha orientalisCattailTyphaceaeNew Zealand
UlmaceaeElm family--
UlmusElmUlmaceae-
UmbelliferaeParsley or Carrot family-Obsolete. Superceded by Apiaceae
VacciniumBilberry, BlueberryEricaceae-
Vaccinum myrtillusBilberryEricaceae-
Valerianella locustaCorn salad, Lamb's lettuceValerianaceae-
VerbenaceaeVerbena family--
ViburnumCranberry-bush, Highbush cranberryCaprifoliaceaeTrees or shrubs
Viburnum prunifoliumBlack hawCaprifoliaceae-
Vicia fabaBroad bean, Fava beanFabaceaeOld World taxon
Viscum albumMistletoeSantalaceaeParasitic shrub
VitaceaeGrape family--
VitisGrapeVitaceae-
Vitis viniferaGrapeVitaceae-
YuccaYucca, Spanish bayonetAgavaceae-
Yucca brevifoliaJoshua tree, Yucca palmAgavaceaeNative to SW USA
Yucca mohavensisMohave yuccaAgavaceaeNative to SW USA. Now referred to Yucca schidigera
ZeaTeosintePoaceae-
Zea maysCorn, MaizePoaceae-

Fungi and Algae

TaxonCommon nameFamilyComments
Cercophora-LasiosphaeriaceaeFungi, coprophilous
Chaetomium-SordariaceaeFungi. Cellulose decomposers, found on plant material and dung.
Gelasinospora-SordariaceaeFungi
Glomus---
Pediastrum-HydrodictyaceaeGreen alga
Podospora-SordariaceaeFungi, coprophilous
Pilobolus crystallinusShotgun fungusPilobolaceaeFungus
Sordariaceae--Fungi, coprophilous
Sordaria-SordariaceaeFungi, coprophilous
Sporormiella-SporormiaceaeFungi, coprophilous
TilletiaSmutTilletiaceaeOften infects seeds of grasses
ThecaphoraSmutUstilaginaceae-
Tripterospora-LasiosphaeriaceaeFungi, coprophilous

Mammals, Reptiles, Fish, and Birds

TaxonCommon nameFamilyComments
Akodon molinaeMolina's Grass MouseCricetidaeArgentina, rodent
Ammotragus lerviaBarbary sheepBovidaeNorth Africa, Sahara
Anas platyrhychosMallard duckAnatidaeBird, Waterfowl
Anguilla anguillaEuropean eelAnguillidae-
AntilocapraAntelope, PronghornAntilocapridaeNorth America. Despite the common name, it is not an antelope because it sheds its antlers every year.
Aquila chrysaetosGolden eagleAccipitridaeNorthern hemisphere distribution
Archaeolemur-ArchaeolemuridaeExtinct lemur of Madagascar
Blarina brevicaudaNorthern short-tailed shrewSoricidae-
BoidaeBoa family--
Branta canadensisCanada gooseAnatidaeBird, Waterfowl
Bubo africanusSpotted eagle owlStrigidae-
BufonidaeToad family--
Canis latransCoyoteCanidaeNorth America
Canis lupusWolf, Gray wolfCanidaeNorth America, Eurasia
Catastomus tahoensisTahoe suckerCatastomidaeFish
Clupea harengusAtlantic herringClupeidae-
ColubridaeSnake family--
ColubrinaeSnake subfamily-Subfamily within the Colubridae
Conepatus chingaAndean hog-nosed skunkMephitidaeSouth America, Argentina
Crocuta crocutaSpotted hyaenaHyaenidae-
Crocuta crocuta intermediaSpotted hyaenaHyaenidae-
Crocuta crocuta spelaeaCave hyaenaHyaenidaeExinct
Crocuta spelaeaCave hyaenaHyaenidaeExtinct
CrotalidaeViper family--
CtenomysTucotucoCtenomyidaeSouth America, rodent
Cyprinus carpio carpioCommon CarpCyprinidaeFreshwater fish
Equus asinusBurro, DonkeyEquidaeIn the US southwest, the term burro is used for feral donkeys
Eubalaena glacialisNorth Atlantic Right WhaleBalaenidae-
Falco tinniculusKestrelFalconidae-
FelidaeCat family--
Felis lynxLynxFelidae-
Galea musteloidesCommon Yellow-toothed CavyCavidaeSouth America, rodent
GallusJunglefowlPhasianidaeAncestor of domestic chicken
Gazella subgutturosaGoitered gazelleBovidaeMiddle East to central Asia
GekkonidaeGecko family
Gila [Siphateles] bicolorTui chubCyprinidaeFish
Gila elegansColorado River bonytail chubCyprinidae-
Glaucomys sabrinusNorthern flying squirrelSciuride-
Gopherus agassiziDesert tortoiseTestudinidae-
Graomys griseflavusGrey Leaf-eared MouseCricetidaeSouth America, rodent
Hipposideros commersoniCommerson's roundleaf batHipposideridae-
Homo neanderthalenisNeanderthalHominidae-
Hyaena brunneaBrown hyaenaHyaenidaesouthern Africa
Hyaena hyaenaStriped hyaenaHyaenidaenorthern Africa and Middle East
IguanidaeLizard family--
Kerodon rupestrisRock cavyCaviidaenortheast Brazil
LagidiumVizcacha, ViscachaChinchillidaeRodent, native to southern South America
LagomorphaLagomorphs-Rabbits
LeptotyphlopidaeThread Snake family--
Loxodonta africanaAfrican elephant, African bush elephantElephantidae-
LeporillusStick-nest ratMuridaeAustralia, desert areas
Leporillus apicalisStick-nest ratMuridaeNow extinct on mainland Australia
Leporillus conditorStick-nest ratMuridaeNow extinct on mainland Australia
MammuthusMammothElephantidaeExtinct
Mammuthus trogontheriiSteppe mammothElephantidaeExtinct
Mus musculusHouse mouseMuridae-
Myotis grisescensGrey BatVespertilionidaeSouthern US
Natrix natrixGrass SnakeColubridaeEurope
Neomylodon listaiGround slothMylodontidaeExtinct
NeotomaPackrat, WoodratCricetidaeNorth America
Neotoma albigulaWhite-throated woodratCricetidaeInterior western US, desert areas
Neotoma cinereaBushy-tailed woodrat, PackratCricetidaeWestern North America, from Canada to Mexico, found in montane areas, grasslands and deserts
Neotoma deviaArizona woodratCricetidaeInterior western US and Mexico, desert areas
Neotoma fuscipesDusky-footed woodratCricetidaeCalifornian species
Neotoma lepidaDesert woodratCricetidaeInterior western US, desert areas
Neotoma mexicanaMexican woodratCricetidaeInterior western North America, from Mexico to Utah, woodland areas
Neotoma stephensiStephens' woodratCricetidaeInterior western North America, very restricted range, parts of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah, associated with juniper
Nothrotheriops shastensisShasta ground slothMegatheriidaeExtinct. North America
NothrotheriumGround slothMegatheriidaeExtinct. South America
Nothrotherium shastenseShasta ground slothMegatheriidaeExtinct. North America
Ochotona princepsPikaOchotonidaeMountains, western North America
Odocoileus hemionusBlack-tailed deer, Mule deerOdocoileus hemionusWestern North America
Oncorhynchus kisutchCoho salmonSalmonidaeNorthern Pacific species
Oncorhynchus masouCherry salmon, SeemaSalmonidaeWestern Pacific species
Oreamnos harringtoniHarrington's mountain goatBovidaeExtinct. North America
OvisSheepBovidae-
Ovis canadensisMountain sheep, Bighorn sheepBovidaeNorth America
PelobatidaeSpadefoot Toad family--
Peltorhamphus novaezeelandiaeNew Zealand solePleuronectidaeNew Zealand
PetromusDassie ratPetromuridaeNamib desert, southern Africa
Petromus typicusDassie ratPetromuridaeNamib desert, southern Africa
Plecoglossus altevelisAyuPlecoglossidaeNative to East Asia
ProcaviaHyraxProcaviidaeMiddle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa
Procavia capensisRock hyrax, Cape hyraxProcaviidaeMiddle East, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa
Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchusSvalbard reindeerCervidaeRestricted to Svalbard, Norway. The smallest subspecies of reindeer.
Rattus rattusBlack rat, Ship ratMuridae-
Rhinichthys osculus robustusLahontan speckled daceCyprinidaeFish
Rhinolophus hipposiderosLesser Horseshoe BatRhinolophidaeEurope
RhombosoleaNew Zealand flounderPleuronectidaeNew Zealand
RodentiaRodents--
Sauromalus obesusChuckwallaIguanidaeDesert lizard, Found in southwestern US and northern Mexico. Now usually referred to Sauromalus alter
Spermophilus lateralisGolden-mantled ground squirrelSciuridaeNorth America
Spermophilus parryiiArctic ground squirrelSciuridaenorther North America
Stizostedion luciopercaZander, PikeperchPercidaePredatory game fish. Freshwater. Synonym for Sander lucioperca
Strigops habroptilusKakapoPsittacidaeParrot. New Zealand
SylvilagusCottontailLeporidae-
Tadarida brasiliensis mexicanaMexican free-tailed batMolossidaeRoosts in caves during the day. The best known colony is at Carlsbad Caverns
Tamias townsendiiTownsend's chipmunkSciuridae-
TelidaeWhiptail Lizard family--
TestudinidaeTortoise family--
Trichosurus vulpeculaBrushtail possumPhalangeridaeNative to Australia. Introduced in New Zealand.
TropidurusChameleonIguanidaeFound in Brazil
Tropidurus torquatusChameleonIguanidaeFound in Brazil
Tyto albaBarn owlTytonidae-
Ursus arctosBrown bear, Grizzly bearUrsidae-
Ursus deningeriDeninger's bearUrsidaeExtinct
Ursus spelaeusCave bearUrsidaeEurope, extinct
UtaSide-blotched LizardPhrynosomatidae-

Endoparasites

TaxonCommon nameFamilyComments
Acanthocephala--Phylum containing parasitic worms
AcanthocephalaThorny-headed worm--
Ancylostoma duodenaleHookwormAncylostomatidae-
Ascarida---
Ascaris-Ascarididae-
Ascaris lumbricoidesRoundworm, Maw wormAscarididaeInfects humans
Ascaris suumRoundworm, Maw wormAscarididaeInfects pigs
Capillaria--Nematode
Capillaria bovis--Nematode. Infects large herbivores
Clonorchis sinensis-OpisthorchiidaeTrematode. Liver fluke. Infects humans. Southeast Asia, China, and Japan.
Cryptocotyle linguaBlack spotHeterophyidae-
DicrocoeliumLiver flukeDicrocoeliidaeTrematode
Dicrocoelium dendriticumLancet flukeDicrocoeliidaeTrematode. Liver fluke, infects domestic animals and humans
DioctophymaKidney worm-Nematode
DiphyllobothriumFish tapewormDiphyllobothriidaeCestode
Diphyllobothrium latumFish tapewormDiphyllobothriidaeCestode
Diphyllobothrium pacificumFish tapewormDiphyllobothriidaeCestode
Entamoeba histolytica--Parasitic protozoan
Enterobius vermicularisHuman pinwormOxyuridae-
Fasciola-FasciolidaeTrematode. Acanthocephelan
Fasciola hepaticaSheep liver flukeFasciolidaeTrematode. Acanthocephelan
Fasciolopsis buskiGiant intestinal flukeFasciolidaeTrematode
Filicollis-Polymorphidae-
Giardia-HexamitidaeProtozoan parasite
Giardia intestinalis-Hexamitidae-
Heterakis---
Hymenolepis nanaDwarf tapewormHymenolepididaeCestode
Metagonimus yokogawaiYokogawa flukeHeterophyidaeMainly found in East Asia
Metastrongylus--Nematode
Monoliformis clarkiThorny-headed wormMoniliformidaeLife cycle includes camel cricket and small rodents. Acanthocephelan
Necator americanusHookwormAncylostomatidae-
OpistorchisFlukeOpisthorchidae Trematode
Oxyuris equi-OxyuridaeIntestinal nematode of horses
Oxyuris vermicularisPinwormOxyuridae-
ParagonimusLung flukeTroglotrematidae-
ParamphistomumRumen flukeParamphistomatidaeTrematode. Parasite of cattle
Parapharyngodon sceleratus-OxyuridaeNematode. Parasite of chameleons
SchistosomaBlood-flukes, BilharziaSchistosomatidae-
Schistocephalus---
Strongylida--Order that contains hookworms
StrongyloidesThreadworm, HairwormStrongyloididae-
Strongyloides ferreiraiThreadworm, HairwormStrongyloididae-
TaeniaTapewormTaeniidaeCestode
Taenioidea-Superfamily, tapeworms
Toxocara-ToxocaridaeParasitic nematode
Toxocara canis-ToxocaridaeParasitic nematode
Trichostrongylus---
TrichurisWhipwormTrichuridaeNematode
Trichuris trichiuraWhipwormTrichuridaeNematode

Other invertebrates (mainly insects)

TaxonCommon nameFamilyComments
Anabrus simplexMormon cricketTettigoniidaeSubarid areas of interior western North America
Aphodius congregatusScarab beetle, ChaferScarabaeidaeDung beetle, western North America. Not associated with a specific type of dung.
Apioninae--Subfamily. Weevils
Aphodius contaminatisDung beetleScarabaeidae-
Aphodius prodromusDung beetleScarabaeidae-
CalyptraeidaeLimpets, Slipper shells-Marine molluscs
Ceuthophilus utahensisCamel cricketRhaphidophoridae-
Chermes cooleyiSpruce aphidChermidaeParasitises cones of spruce
Cladocera--Small aquatic crustaceans
ColeopteraBeetles--
CurculionidaeWeevils or Snout beetles--
Damalinia bovisCattle biting louseTrichodectidaeLouse of cattle
Daphnia-DaphniidaeSmall aquatic crustaceans
Dascillus cervinusOrchid beetleDascillidae-
DipteraFlies, Midges--
FormicidaeAnts--
Heterogaster urticaeNettlebugLygaeidaeIts usual habitat is nettles
LittorinidaePeriwinkle-Molluscs, most are found in marine intertidal habitats
LymnaeaPond snailLymnaeidaeAquatic snail
Lymnaea trunculataDwarf pond snailLymnaeidaeAquatic snail
Musca domesticaHouse flyMuscidae-
Melanopus sanguinipesGrasshopperLocustidae-
MuscidaeFlies--
Mycetaea hirtaHairy cellar beetleEndomychidae -
Mytilus edulisMusselMytilidaeMarine bivalve, mollusc, seafood
Niptus abstrusesGolden spider beetleAnobiidae-
Palorus ratzeburgiSmall-eyed flour beetleTenebrionidaeSerious pest of stored grain
Pediculus humanusLousePediculidae-
Phalacropsyllini--Tribe. Fleas
Phyllopertha horticolaChafer beetleScarabaeidae-
Phyllotreta striolataStriped flea beetleChrysomelidaePest of crucifers, introduced to North America
Pterostichus melanariusGround beetleCarabidae-
Ptinus-AnobiidaeBeetle
ScarabaeidaeDung and Chafer beetles--
Scotylus scotylusElm bark beetleScolytinaeThe vector for Dutch elm disease
Sitophilus granariusGrain weevil, Wheat weevilCurculionidaeSerious pest of stored grain
SphaeroceridaeFlies--
Thoracochaeta zosteraeSeaweed flySphaerocidaeFound on seaweed along highwater mark of sea shores
Thylodrias contractusOdd beetle, Tissue paper beetleDermestidae-
Tipnus unicolorSpider beetlePtinidae-

Sources

For plants:
Farrar, J. L. (1995) Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. x + 502 pages.
Moss, E. H. (1983) Flora of Alberta. Second edition. Revised by J. G. Packer. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 687 pages.
Phillips, R. (1978) Trees of North America and Europe. Random House, New York. 224 pages.
For mammals:
Anderson, E. (1984) Who's Who in the Pleistocene: A Mammalian Bestiary. In Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution, edited by P. S. Martin and R. G. Klein. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona.
Duplaix, N., and N. Simon (1983) World Guide to Mammals. Greenwich House, New York. 283 pages.
Smith, H. C., with contributions from R. I. Hastings and J. A. Burns (1993) Alberta Mammals: An Atlas and Guide. Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. xii + 238 pages.



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All Taxa

This presentation has been compiled and is © 1998-2013 by
Alwynne B. Beaudoin (bluebulrush@gmail.com)
Last updated March 2, 2013
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