Alwynne B. Beaudoin - Lake File

Crawford Lake

Location: Ontario, Canada Latitude (N): 43.47° Longitude (W): 79.95°
Site notes:
Boyko-Diakonow, M. 1979
The Laminated Sediments of Crawford Lake, Southern Ontario, Canada. In Moraines and Varves, edited by C. Schluchter, pp. 303- 307. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

Boyko, M. 1973
European Impact on the Vegetation Around Crawford Lake in Southern Ontario. Unpublished M.S. thesis. Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada 114 pp.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (25/03/2008).

Byrne, R., and J. H. McAndrews 1975
Pre-Columbian Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L) in the New World. Nature 253:726-727.
AEU SCI Q 1 N28 Site discussed: Crawford Lake. Contains images of pollen and seeds. (26/03/2008).

Clark, J. S., and P. D. Royall 1995
Transformation of a Northern Hardwood Forest by Aboriginal (Iroquois) Fire: Charcoal Evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. The Holocene 5:1-9.
AEU SCI QE 699 H62 Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

Ekdahl, E. J., J. L. Terranes, T. P. Guilderson, C. L. Turton, J. H. McAndrews, C. A. Wittkop, and E. C. Stoermer 2004
Prehistorical Record of Cultural Eutrophication from Crawford Lake, Canada. Geology 32:745-748.
AEU SCI QE 1 G3455 Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (25/03/2008).

McAndrews, J. H. 1988
Human Disturbance of North American Forests and Grasslands: The Fossil Pollen Record. In Vegetation History, edited by B. Huntley and T. Webb III, pp. 673-697. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Sites discussed: Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico; Lake [sic] Quexil, Guatemala; Mug House Pueblo, Colorado; Crawford Lake, Ontario; Linsley Pond, Connecticut; Quirke Lake, Ontario; Kouert Lake, Minnesota; Pasqua Lake, Saskatchewan; Wildcat Lake, Washington; Deer Lake, British Columbia. A review paper of published sites, pollen diagrams from the discussed sites are included (10/10/2009).

McAndrews, J. H., and M. Boyko-Diakanow 1989
Pollen Analysis of Varved Lake Sediments at Crawford Lake: Evidence of Indian and European Farming. In Quaternary Geology of Canada and Greenland, edited by R. J. Fulton, pp. 528-530. Geology of Canada 1. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (25/03/2008).

McAndrews, J. H., M. Boyko, and C. McGowan 1971
Sampling Crawford Lake for Varves, Pollen, Leaves and Feathers. Geoscience and Man 7:123.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

McAndrews, J. H., and C. E. Turton 2005
The Goosing of Crawford Lake with Prehistoric Corn Pollen. CAP Newsletter 28(1):5-7.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. Reports the occurrence of nodules in sediments of Crawford Lake, contemporaneous with the Iroquois farming interval, beginning about 1280 AD. Nodules are thought to be pellets (dung) from Canada geese, that were feeding on the cultivated fields. Consider that this is the likely source of the corn pollen that has been identified in pollen analysis of the lake sediments. (29/12/2007).

McAndrews, J. H., and C. L. Turton 2007
Canada Geese Dispersed Cultigen Pollen Grains from Prehistoric Iroquoian Fields to Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. Palynology 31:9-18.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. Presents evidence that pellets found in the Iroquoian zone (ca. 1200 - 1500 AD) of sediment cores from Crawford Lake were deposited by Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Evidence includes the pollen content of the pellets, both in terms of abundance and composition, and DNA. Suggest that nutrient input from geese encouraged meromixis and varving of lake sediments. Geese probably grazed on Iroquian fields, hence large proportion of cultivar (e.g., Zea) and weed pollen. Suggest that similar effects should be looked for in lake sediments elsewhere. (25/03/2008) .

Moenig, J., L. Doble, E. Geldard, A. Fedorenko, M. Gren, and M. Czuba 1970
A Limnological Study of Crawford Lake. 98 pp. Department of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

Turton, C., M. Brown, and W. D. Finlayson 1998
Purslane Use: A Cultural Practice by Ontario Iroquoians Near Crawford Lake A.D. 1000 - 1650, Evidence from Pollen and Macrofossil Studies of Lake Sediments in Southern Ontario, Canada. In Iroquoian Peoples of the Land of Rocks and water A.D. 1000 - 1650: A Study in Settlement Archaeology, edited by W. D. Finlayson, pp. 115-120. Museum of Archaeology Special Publication 1. Museum of Archaeology, London, Ontario, Canada.
Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

Turton, C. L., and J. H. McAndrews 2006
Rotifer Loricas in Second Millennium Sediment of Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 141:1-6.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

Yu, Z. 1997
Late Quaternary Paleoecology of Thuja and Juniperus (Cupressaceae) at Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada: Pollen, Stomata and Macrofossils. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 96:241-254.
AEU SCI QE 901 R45 Site discussed: Crawford Lake. (26/03/2008).

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