Alwynne B. Beaudoin - Lake File

Elk Lake (Clearwater Co., MN)

Location: Minnesota, USA Latitude (N): 47.19° Longitude (W): 95.22°
Site notes: There are two Elk Lakes in Minnesota that have been the subject of palaeoecological studies. This is the better-known and more-studied of the two. It is located in Itasca State Park.
Anderson, R. Y. 1993
The Varve Chronometer in Elk Lake: Record of Climatic Variability and Evidence. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 45-67. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Anderson, R. Y., J. P. Bradbury, W. E. Dean, and M. Stuiver 1993
Chronology of Elk Lake Sediments: Coring, Sampling, and Time- Series Construction. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 37-43. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Anderson, R. Y., W. E. Dean, and J. P. Bradbury 1993
Elk Lake in Perspective. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 1-6. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Bartlein, P. J., and C. Whitlock 1993
Paleoclimatic Interpretation of the Elk Lake Pollen Record. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 275-293. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Bradbury, J. P. 1975
Diatom Stratigraphy and Human Settlement in Minnesota. Special Paper 171. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA 74 pp.
Sites discussed: Pickerel Lake, Lake Sallie, St Clair Lake, Elk Lake (Clearwater County), Shagawa Lake, Tanager Lake, Lake Minnetonka (Browns Bay), Lake Minnetonka (Carman Bay).

Bradbury, J. P., W. E. Dean, and R. Y. Anderson 1993
Holocene Climatic and Limnologic History of the North-Central United States as Recorded in the Varved Sediments of Elk Lake, Minnesota: A Synthesis. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 309-328. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Bradbury, J. P., and K. V. Dieterich-Rurup 1993
Holocene Diatom Paleoclimatology of Elk Lake, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 215-237. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Brugam, R. B. 1993
Surface Sample Analogues of Elk Lake Fossil Diatom Assemblages. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 189-214. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Clark, J. S. 1993
Fire, Climate Change, and Forest Processes During the Past 2000 Years. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 295-308. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Covich, A. P., S. C. Fritz, P. J. Lamb, R. D. Marzolf, W. J. Matthews, K. A. Poiani, E. E. Prepas, M. B. Richman, and T. C. Winter 1997
Potential Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Great Plains of North America. Hydrological Processes 11:993-1021.
Sites discussed: Devils Lake, Elk Lake (Clearwater County). A useful review article that touches on proxy palaeoenvironmental data and considers impacts of future climate change scenarios. Contains a useful and extensive reference list.

Dean, W. E. 1993
Physical Properties, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Holocene Varved Sediments from Elk Lake, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 135-157. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Dean, W. E. 1997
Rates, timing, and cyclicity of Holocene eolian activity in north-central United States: Evidence from varved lake sediments. Geology 25(4):331-334.
AEU SCI QE 1 G3455 Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County). Found that aeolian input to Elk Lake (Clearwater County, MN) was greater in the mid-Holocene. Found distinct patterning (regularity) in the geochemical signature of aeolian activity.

Dean, W. E., E. Gorham, and D. J. Swaine 1993
Geochemistry of Surface Sediments of Minnesota Lakes. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 115-133. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Dean, W. E., and R. O. Megard 1993
Environment of Deposition of CaCO3 in Elk Lake, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 97-113. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Dean, W. E., and M. Stuiver 1993
Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Studies of the Sediments of Elk Lake, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 163-180. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Forester, R. M. 1982
Ostracodes as Indicators of Rapid Climate Change. In American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) Program and Abstracts of the Seventh Biennial Conference. pp. 51-52. Character and Timing of Rapid Environmental and Climatic Changes. June 28-30, 1982, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County). Short review of utility of ostracodes as a climate indicator. Notes that ostracodes show some short-term climate fluctuations in the Elk Lake record that are not shown in the pollen record. One particular taxon, Cadona rectangulata, appears at an interval estimated to span 10,900 to 10,600 yr BP. This is an indicator of cold summer conditions (currently confined to the north, where water temperatures remain cool). (04/12/2007).

Forester, R. M., L. D. Delorme, and L. P. Bradbury 1987
Mid-Holocene Climate in Northern Minnesota. Quaternary Research 28:263-273.
AEU SCI QE 696 Q24 Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County), Minnesota. Discusses temperature estimates for last 8000 years based on records from six ostracode species (Limnocythere herricki, Candona rawsoni, Candona candida, Physocypria globula, and Heterocypris incongruens) and diatom records recovered from lake cores. (04/04/2009).

Laird, K. R., B. F. Cumming, S. Wunsam, J. A. Rusak, R. J. Oglesby, S. C. Fritz, and P. R. Leavitt 2003
Lake sediments record large-scale shifts in moisture regimes across the northern prairies of North America during the past two millennia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 100(5):2483-2488.
Sites discussed: Chauvin Lake, Nora Lake, Coldwater Lake, Moon Lake, Elk Lake (Clearwater County Study based on analysis of diatom records.

Megard, R. O., J. P. Bradbury, and W. E. Dean 1993
Climatic and Limnologic Setting of Elk Lake. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 19-36. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Nuhfer, E. B., R. Y. Anderson, J. P. Bradbury, and W. E. Dean 1993
Modern Sedimentation in Elk Lake, Clearwater County, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 75-96. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Sanger, J. E., and R. J. Hay 1993
Fossil Pigments in Holocene Varved Sediments in Elk Lake, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 181-188. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Sprowl, D. R. 1993
On the Precision of the Elk Lake Varve Chronology. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 69-74. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Sprowl, D. R., and S. K. Banerjee 1993
Geologic Implications of the Elk Lake Paleomagnetic Record. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 159-162. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Whitlock, C., P. J. Bartlein, and W. A. Watts 1993
Vegetation of Elk Lake. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 251-274. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Wright Jr, H. E. 1993
History of the Landscape in the Itasca Region. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 7-17. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Sites discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

Zeeb, B. A., and J. P. Smol 1993
Postglacial Chrysophycean Cyst Record from Elk Lake, Minnesota. In Elk Lake, Minnesota: Evidence for Rapid Climate Change in the North-Central United States, edited by J. P. Bradbury and W. E. Dean, pp. 239-249. Special Paper 276. Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
Site discussed: Elk Lake (Clearwater County).

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